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What is SHAB-E-BARAAT? Please quote the Ahadith relating to this. Are there any Hadith that support performing Special Ibadaat during this Night?

Answered as per Hanafi Fiqh by Askimam.org

The Night of Bara’ah

Another significant feature of the month of Sha’ban is that it consists of a
night which is termed in Shariah as “Laylatul-bara’ah” (The night of freedom
from Fire). This is the night occurring between 14th and 15th day of
Sha’ban. There are certain traditions of Prophet Muhammad, Sall-Allahu
alayhi wa sallam, to prove that it is a meritorious night in which the
people of the earth are attended by special Divine mercy. Some of these
traditions are quoted as follows:

1. Ummul-Mu’mineen ‘Aishah, Radi-Allahu anha, is reported to have said,
“Once Prophet Muhammad, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam, performed the Salah of
the night (Tahajjud) and made a very long Sajdah until I feared that he had
passed away. When I saw this, I rose (from my bed) and moved his thumb (to
ascertain whether he is alive). The thumb moved, and I returned (to my
place). Then I heard him saying in Sajdah: ‘I seek refuge of Your
forgiveness from Your punishment, and I seek refuge of Your pleasure from
Your annoyance, and I seek Your refuge from Yourself. I cannot praise You as
fully as You deserve. You are exactly as You have defined Yourself.’
Thereafter, when he raised his head from Sajdah and finished his salah, he
said to me: ‘Aishah, did you think that the Prophet has betrayed you?’ I
said, ‘No, O Prophet of Allah, but I was afraid that your soul has been
taken away because your Sajdah was very long.’ He asked me, ‘Do you know
which night is this?’ I said, ‘Allah and His Messenger know best.’ He said,
‘This is the night of the half of Sha’ban. Allah Almighty looks upon His
slaves in this night and forgives those who seek forgiveness and bestows His
mercy upon those who pray for mercy but keeps those who have malice (against
a Muslim) as they were before, (and does not forgive them unless they
relieve themselves from malice).'”

2. In another Tradition Sayyidah’ Aishah, Radi-Allahu anha, has reported
that Prophet Muhammad, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam, has said, “Allah
Almighty descends (in a manner He best knows it) in the night occurring in
the middle of Sha’ban and forgives a large number of people more than the
number of the fibers on the sheep of the tribe, Kalb.”

Kalb was a big tribe the members of which had a very large number of sheep.
Therefore, the last sentence of the hadith indicates the big number of the
people who are forgiven in this night by Allah Almighty.

3. In yet another Tradition, she has reported Prophet Muhammad, Sall-Allahu
alayhi wa sallam, to have said, “This is the middle Night of Sha’ban. Allah
frees in it a large number of the people from Fire, more than the number of
the hair growing on the sheep of the tribe, Kalb. But He does not even look
at a person who associates partners with Allah, or at a person who nourishes
malice in his heart (against someone), or at a person who cuts off the ties
of kinship, or at a man who leaves his clothes extending beyond his ankles
(as a sign of pride), or at a person who disobeys his parents, or at a
person who has a habit of drinking wine.”

4. Sayyidna Mu’adh ibn Jabal, Radi-Allahu anhu, reports that Prophet
Muhammad, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam, has said: “Allah Almighty looks upon
all those created by Him in the middle Night of Sha’ban and forgives all
those created by Him, except the one who associates partners with Him or the
one who has malice in his heart (against a Muslim)”.

Although the chain of narrators of some of these traditions suffers with
some minor technical defects, yet when all these traditions are combined
together, it becomes clear that this night has some well founded merits, and
observing this night as a sacred night is not a baseless concoction as
envisaged by some modern scholars who, on the basis of these minor defects,
have totally rejected to give any special importance to this night. In fact,
some of these traditions have been held by some scholars of hadith as
authentic and the defects in the chain of some others have been treated by
them as minor technical defects which, according to the science of hadith,
are curable by the variety of their ways of narration. That is why the
elders of the ummah have constantly been observing this night as a night of
special merits and have been spending it in worship and prayers.

What should be done in this night?

In order to observe the Night of Bara’ah, one should remain awakened in this
night as much as he can. If someone has better opportunities, he should
spend the whole night in worship and prayer. However, if one cannot do so
for one reason or another, he can select a considerable portion of the
night, preferably of the second half of it for this purpose, and should
perform the following acts of worship:

(a) Salah. Salah is the most preferable act to be performed in this night.
There is no particular number of Rak’at but preferably it should not be less
than eight. It is also advisable that each part of the Salah like qiyam,
rukoo’ and sajdah should be longer than normal. The longest surahs of the
Holy Qur’an one remembers by heart should be recited in the Salah of this
night. If someone does not remember the long surahs, he can also recite
several short surahs in one rak’ah.

(b) Tilawa. The recitation of the Holy Qur’an is another form of worship,
very beneficent in this night. After performing Salah, or at any other time,
one should recite as much of the Holy Qur’an as he can.

(c) Dhikr. One should also perform dhikr (recitation of the name of Allah)
in this night. Particularly the following dhikr is very useful:

One should recite Salah (durood) on Prophet Muhammad, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa
sallam, as many times as he can. The dhikr can also be recited while
walking, lying on bed and during other hours of work or leisure.

(d) Dua. The best benefit one can draw from the blessings of this night is
prayers and supplications. It is hoped that all the prayers in this night
will be accepted by our Lord, insha-Allah. Prayer itself is an ‘Ibadah, and
Allah Almighty gives reward on each prayer along with the fulfillment of the
supplicator’s need. Even if the purpose prayed for is not achieved, one
cannot be deprived of the reward of the prayer which is sometimes more
precious than the mundane benefits one strives for. The prayers and
supplications also strengthen one’s relation with Allah Almighty, which is
the main purpose of all kinds and forms of worship.

One can pray for whatever purpose he wishes. But the best supplications are
the ones made by Prophet Muhammad, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam. These are
so comprehensive and all-encompassing prayers that all the human needs, of
this world and the Hereafter, are fully covered in the eloquent expressions
used in them. Actually, most of the prophetic prayers are so profound that
human imagination can hardly match their greatness.

Several books in various languages are available which provide these
prophetic prayers, and one should pray to Allah Almighty in accordance with
them, whether by reciting their original Arabic text or by rendering their
sense in one’s own language.

(e) There are some people who cannot perform any additional Salah or
recitations for any reason, like illness or weakness or being engaged in
some other necessary activities. Such people also should not deprive
themselves completely of the blessings of this night. They should observe
the following acts:

(i) To perform the Salah of Maghrib, ‘Isha’ and Fajr with Jama’ah in the
mosque, or in their homes in case of their being sick.

(ii) They should keep reciting the dhikr, particularly the one mentioned in
para (c) above, in whatever condition they are until they sleep.

(iii) They should pray to Allah for their forgiveness and for their other
objectives. One can do so even when he is in his bed.

(f) The women during their periods cannot perform salah, nor can they recite
the Qur’an, but they can recite any dhikr, tasbeeh, durood sharif and can
pray to Allah for whatever purpose they like in whatever language they wish.
They can also recite the Arabic prayers mentioned in the Qur’an or in the
hadith with the intention of supplication (and not with the intention of

(g) According to a hadith, which is relatively less authentic, Prophet
Muhammad, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam, went in this night to the graveyard
of Baqi’ where he prayed for the Muslims buried there. On this basis, some
of the fuqaha hold it as mustahabb (advisable) in this night to go to the
graveyard of the Muslims and recite Fatihah or any other part of the Qur’an,
and pray for the dead. But this act is neither obligatory nor should it be
performed as regularly as an obligatory act.

What should not be done in this night

1. As mentioned earlier, the Night of Bara’ah is a night in which special
blessings are directed towards the Muslims. Therefore, this night should be
spent in total submission to Allah Almighty, and one should refrain from all
those activities, which may displease Allah. Although it is always incumbent
upon every Muslim to abstain from sins, yet this abstinence becomes all the
more necessary in such nights, because committing sins in this night will
amount to responding to divine blessings with disobedience and felony. Such
an arrogant attitude can invite nothing but the wrath of Allah. Therefore,
one should strictly abstain from all the sins, particularly from those
mentioned in the Hadith No. 3 quoted earlier in this article, because these
sins make one devoid of the blessings of this night.

2. In this night some people indulge in some activities which they regard as
necessary for the celebration of the Night of Bara’ah, like cooking some
special type of meal, or illuminating houses or mosques, or improvised
structures. All such activities are not only baseless and innovated in the
later days by ignorant people, but in some cases they are pure imitation of
some rituals performed by non-Muslim communities. Such imitation in itself
is a sin; performing it in a blessed night like the Night of Bara’ah makes
it worse. Muslims should strictly abstain from all such activities.

3. Some people spend this night in holding religious meetings and delivering
long speeches. Such activities are also not advisable, because these acts
can easily be performed in other nights. This night requires one to devote
himself for the pure acts of worship only.

4. The acts of worship like Salah, recitation of the Qur’an and dhikr should
be performed in this night individually, not collectively. The Nafl Salah
should not be performed in Jama’ah, nor should the Muslims arrange
gatherings in the mosques in order to celebrate the night in a collective

On the contrary, this night is meant for worshipping Allah in solitude. It
is the time to enjoy the direct contact with the Lord of the Universe, and
to devote one’s attention to Him and Him alone. These are the precious hours
of the night in which nobody should intervene between one and his Lord, and
one should turn to Allah with total concentration, not disturbed or
intermitted by any one else.

That is why Prophet Muhammad, Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam, observed the
acts of worship in this night in total seclusion, not accompanied by anyone,
not even by his favorite life companion Sayyidah ‘Aishah, Radi-Allahu anha,
and that is why all forms of the optional worship (Nafl Ibadah), are advised
by him to be done in individual, not in collective manner.

Fast of the 15th Sha’ban
On the day immediately following the Night of Bara’ah, i.e. the 15th of
Sha’ban, it is mustahabb (advisable) to keep fast. Prophet Muhammad,
Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam, is reported to have recommended this fast
emphatically. Although the scholars of hadith have some doubts in the
authenticity of this report, yet it is mentioned earlier that the fasts of
the first half of Sha’ban have special merits and Prophet Muhammad,
Sall-Allahu alayhi wa sallam, used to fast most of the days in Sha’ban.
Moreover, a large number of the elders (salaf) of the Ummah have been
observing the fast of the 15th of Sha’ban. This constant practice indicates
that they have accepted the relevant hadith as authentic.

Therefore, it is advisable to fast the 15th of Sha’ban as an optional (nafl)
fast. One can also keep a fast of qada on this day and it is hoped that he
can also benefit from the merits of this fast.

Mufti M Taqi Usmani

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