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Are the Eid Takbirs an Innovation?

Answered by Shaykh Amjad Rasheed

Some people claim that the saying “Allahu Akbaru kabiran, wa al-hamdu liLlahi kathiran, wa Subhana Allahi bukratan wa asilan…..etc” in the takbirs of Eid is a bid`ah. Is this true? Has this come to us from the Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him? And what is the chosen form of the takbir according the Shafi’i imams?

Answer:
In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

 

The scholars have agreed that the takbirs of eid are sunna, and they have agreed that there is no specific wording in saying this takbir, rather the matter is open and there are no restrictions in it, as many scholars have said. So due to this, we see that the scholars have differed in the form in which it is said and they have not accused one another of bid`a in this. The wording that was mentioned in the question is the wording that Imam Al-Shafi’i chose, may Allah be pleased with him and have mercy on him, for the takbir of eid, drawing upon it because of what has come of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, at the conquest of Mecca. So whoever says that it is a bid`ah, and intends blame by it, then he is an ignoramus of what the imams follow.

I have already compiled all of the issues of the takbir in a short article where I clarify that the takbir is sunna, as well as its loud recitation with a group in the masjid and this is an excerpt from it, “As for a description of the takbir, there is nothing confirmed about it from the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him. However, its purpose is in accordance with the saying of Allah most High, “(He wants you) to complete the prescribed period, and to glorify Him in that He has guided you” {al-Baqarah, 185}, and according to what has been mentioned about the actions of the Companions and the righteous predecessors, may Allah be well pleased with him, without specifying any particular characteristic of this takbir. So because of this, the imams have stated that the features of the takbir are open, so anyone who glorifies in any way, it is permissible. However, some of the scholars have chosen specific ways for themselves that they prefer over others by relying on some general texts that have come about the takbir of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him. ………

So among them are two scholars, Malik Ibn Anas and Ahmad ibn Hanbal; al-Qurtubi said in his tafsir (2/307), “The formula of the takbir according to Malik and a group of scholars was, “Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar,” (three times). And some of those scholars would also add on, more takbir, the saying la ilaha illa Allah and glorification during the takbirs. Also among them were those who said, “Allahu Akbar kabiran, wa al-hamdu liLlahi kathiran, wa subhan Allahi bukratan wa asilan.” Ibn al-Mubarak used to say, when he went out on the day of Eid al-Fitr, “Allahu Akbar akbaru la illaha illa Allah, Wa liLahi al-hand, Allahu Akbar `ala ma hadana.” Ibn al-Mundhir said, “Malik would find no limit to it.” And Ahmad said, “It is open [s. the matter].”

Imam al-Shafi’i said in his book, Al-Umm (1/214), “The takbir is how the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, used to make takbir in the prayer: Allahu Akbar. Then, the Imam begins to say, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, until he has said this three times, and if he says more, it is good. And if he wants to add to it, he says, Allahu Akbar kabiran, wa al-hamdu liLlahi kathiran, wa subhan Allahi bukratan wa asilan, Allahu akbar, wa la na`budu illa iyyah, mukhlisina lahu al-dina wa law kariha al-kafiran, la ilaha illa Allahu wahdah, sadaqa wa`dah, wa nasara `abdah, wa hazama al-ahzaba wahdah, la ilaha illa ALlahu, wa Allahu akbar. This is excellent. Whatever dhikr he wishes to add to this, I have loved it, though I love that he begin with three takbirs successively, and if he limits himself to only one, I have permitted it.”

Al-Bayhaqi said in his Sunan (3/315), “Beginning with three takbirs successively is similar to the rest of the sunnas of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him instead of beginning with two, even if all are open.”

Imam al-Mawurdi said in al-Hawi al-Kabir (2/500), “However one says the takbir, it is permissible.”

I have finished the part that I wanted to transmit from the aforementioned letter and there is enough in it to suffice as an answer, and Allah is the guide to what is right.

Amjad Rasheed

(Translated by Shazia Ahmad)

 

السؤال: هل صحيح ما يدعيه بعض الناس من أن قول “الله أكبر كبيراً والحمد لله كبيرا وسبحان الله بكرة وأصيلا…الخ ) في تكبيرات العيد بدعة ؟ وهل ورد هذا عن الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم ؟ وما هي الصيغة المختارة للتكبير عند السادة الشافعية ؟

الجواب : اتفق العلماء على سنية تكبيرات العيد ، واتفقوا على أنه ليس هناك صيغة معينة لهذا التكبير بل الأمر فيه واسع لا تقييد فيه ،كما صرح به كثيرون ، ولذا نرى العلماء قد اختلفوا في الصيغة التي تقال ولم يبدع بعضهم بعضاً في ذلك ، والصيغة المذكورة في السؤال هي ما اختاره إمامنا الشافعي رضي الله ورحمه لتكبير العيد استئناساً بها لورودها عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في فتح مكة ، فمن يقول بأن ذلك بدعة ويقصد بذلك الذم فهو جاهل بما عليه الأئمة ، وقد كنت جمعت في مسألة التكبير رسالة لطيفة أبين فيها سنيته والجهر به جماعة في المساجد ، ومما قلته فيها :” وأما صفة التكبير فلم يثبت فيها عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم شيء ، وغاية ما في ذلك قول الله تعالى : ( ولتكملوا العدة ولتكبروا الله على ما هداكم ) [البقرة:185] وما سبق ذكره من فعل الصحابة والسلف رضي الله عنهم دون تعيين صفة خاصة بهذا التكبير ، ولذا صرح الأئمة بأن صفة التكبير واسعة فكيف كبر الشخص جاز ، ولكن اختار بعض الأئمة لنفسه صفة فضلها على غيرها استناداً إلى بعض النصوص العامة الواردة في تكبير النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم . وإليك ما صرح به هؤلاء الأئمة:

· فمنهم الإمامان مالك بن أنس وأحمد بن حنبل ، قال القرطبي في تفسيره (2/307) : ” ولفظ التكبير عند مالك وجماعة من العلماء : الله أكبر ، الله أكبر الله أكبر ، ثلاثا . ومن العلماء من يكبر ويهلل ويسبح أثناء التكبير . ومنهم من يقول : الله أكبر كبيرا والحمد لله كثيرا وسبحان الله بكرة وأصيلا . وكان ابن المبارك يقول إذا خرج من يوم الفطر : الله أكبر الله أكبر لا إله إلا الله ، ولله الحمد , الله أكبر على ما هدانا . قال ابن المنذر : وكان مالك لا يحد فيه حداً . وقال أحمد : هو واسع “. اهـ

· وقال الإمام الشافعي في كتابه “الأم”(1/214) :” والتكبير كما كبر رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في الصلاة : الله أكبر . فيبدأ الإمام فيقول : الله أكبر الله أكبر الله أكبر . حتى يقولها ثلاثا ، وإن زاد تكبيراً فحسن ، وإن زاد فقال : الله أكبر كبيراً ، والحمد لله كثيراً ، وسبحان الله بكرة وأصيلاً ، الله أكبر ولا نعبد إلا الله مخلصين له الدين ولو كره الكافرون ، لا إله إلا الله وحده ، صدق وعده ، ونصر عبده ، وهزم الأحزاب وحده ، لا إله إلا الله والله أكبر . فحسنٌ ، وما زاد مع هذا من ذكر الله أحببته ، غير أني أحب أن يبدأ بثلاث تكبيرات نسقا ، وإن اقتصر على واحدة أجزأته “. اهـ

· وقال البيهقي في “السنن” (3/315) :” فالابتداء بثلاث تكبيرات نسقا أشبه بسائر سنن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم من الابتداء بها مرتين ، وإن كان الكل واسعا “. اهـ

وقال الإمام الماوردي في “الحاوي الكبير” (2/500):” وكيف كبر جاز “. اهـ “. انتهى ما أردتُ نقله من الرسالة المذكورة وفيها كفايةٌ في الجواب ، والله الهادي للصواب .

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