In one of your fatwas you said that Hanafis cannot join Maghrib and iSha prayers together if they are in a hurry or on a journey. I had come across the below al-Bukhari hadiths:
Narrated by Salims father (Radhiallaho anho):The Prophet (Sallallaahu ’alaihi wasallam) used to offer the Maghrib and Isha’ prayers together whenever he sallallaahu’alaihi wasallam) was in a hurry on a journey.
Narrated Ibn Abbas: Allah’s Messenger salallaahu ’alaihiwasallam used to offer the Zuhr and ’Asr prayers together on journeys, and also used to offer the Maghrib and ’Isha’prayers together.
Narrated Anas bin Malik: The Prophet (sallallaahu ’alaihi wasallam) used to offer the Maghrib and the ’Isha’ prayers together on journeys. Bukhari Vol. 2 : No. 209
Now please Clarify whether as a hanafi, I can offer maghrib and Isha prayers together when ever i’ll be travelling.
A: According to the Hanafi Madhab, one may not combine any 2 Salaats, whether one is on a journey or even in a hurry. (Shaami vol.1 pg.381)
The reason for your confusion is that you have not understood that every verdict of Imaam Abu Hanifa [ra] as well as the other Madhaahib are backed with various proofs. Mere leisure reading of the books of Hadith which have narrations of different meanings and diverse connotations leads to such confusion as well. If one really has the thirst to study the glorious Hadith of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam), it should be done under the guidance of an experienced expert in this field.
Furthermore, it is inappropriate for a follower of any particular Madhab, to question the proofs of any specific verdict in that Madhab. All he needs to do is to follow, (Rasmul Mufti) only if such a person has reached a certain rank in his knowledge is he allowed to do so.
However, for purposes of clarity, we would explain the matter briefly.
Know well that it is an established principle of the Hanafi Madhab, that each of the 4 sources of knowledge of Shari’ah will be treated in accordance to their respective ranks. The four sources that we refer to are: a) Qur’aan, b) Hadith, c) Ijmaa (consensus of the Jurists) and, d) Qiyaas (analogical reasoning).
No Muslim can doubt the superiority of the Qur’aan over the Hadith, and the superiority of the Hadith over Ijmaa and Qiyaas. Hence, if there be any type of Ijmaa or Qiyaas that contradicts Qur’aan or Hadith, that Ijmaa or Qiyaas would not be accepted.
Similarly, if there be any Hadith that outwardly contradicts a particular verse of the holy Qur’aan and if no reconcilement can be achieved between the two, the verdict of the holy Qur’aan will be considered over the apparent meaning of that seemingly contradicting Hadith. And if both can be reconciled, then let it be.
In the discussion at hand, the Hadith you quote outwardly contradicts the verse of the holy Qur’aan, ‘Verily Salaat is ordained upon the believers at fixed hours.’ (Surah al-Nisaa Aayat103)
And if no reconcilement could be achieved between the two, one would be obliged to temporarily leave the Hadith and act upon the Aayat. However, fortunately in this instance, the Hanafi jurists have rightfully reconciled between the two in the light of the other traditions. They have stated that since the verse of the Qur’aan is explicit in the fact that Salaat needs to be performed in its prescribed time, the Ahaadith which outwardly contradict it would most definitely not have it’s Haqeeqi (literal) meaning. Instead, it would have to be in it’s Majaazi (metaphorical) meaning which would be that the combining of the Salaats refers to an apparent combining only (Jamaa Soori) and not a real combining. This is supported by other narrations which implore that Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) performed Maghrib Salaat at the end of its time and Esha Salaat at the very beginning of its prescribed time. This, in fact, outwardly seems to be a combination, but in reality it is not so. A few of these Ahaadith are:
1. Sayyidatuna Aaisha (Radhiallaahu Anha) reports that Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam), while on a journey, used to delay the Dhuhr and bring earlier the Asr Salaat and he would delay the Maghrib and bring earlier the Esha Salaat. (Musnad Ahmad vol.6 pg.135 Hadith24920 and al-Tahawi – Muhaddith al-Nimawi has classified this narration as Hasan; Aathaarus-sunan pg.432)
2. Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Umar (Radhiallaahu Anhu)’s students have reported that when he (ibn Umar) was on a journey, he once performed the Maghrib Salaat just before the end of it’s time (before the disappearance of the horizon), he then waited until the time of Esha entered and thereafter performed it. Then he said, ‘Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) would do the same when he was in a hurry on journey.’ (Sunan Abu Dawud Hadith1205). Imaam al-Nimawi has classified this as Sahih (authentic) – Aathaarus sunan pg.434
3. Sayyiduna Umar (Radhiallaahu Anhu), the son of Sayyiduna Ali (Radhiallaahu Anhu) reports that it was the practice of Sayyiduna Ali ibn Abi-Talib (Radhiallaahu Anhu) that whenever he was on journey, he would continue moving until just before it became dark, (i.e. just before the time of Maghrib finished). He would at this time perform his Maghrib Salaat. Then he would partake of meals and after that he would perform the Esha Salaat. Sayyiduna Ali (Radhiallaahu Anhu) would also mention that this was how Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) would do. (Sunan Abu Dawud Hadith1227- Muhaddith al-Nimawi has classified this narration as Sahih – Aathaarus-sunan pg.435)
4. Another Hadith that further establishes the Hanafi stand on this Mas-alah is the narration recorded by Imaam al-Bukhari in his Sahih (Hadith1682) that Sayyiduna ibn Mas’ood (Radhiallaahu Anhu) says, ‘I never saw Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) performing any Salaat outside its prescribed time except Maghrib and Esha and Fajr (all these were done in Muzdalifah – refer Sunan al-Nasaaie vol.2 pg.44). This Hadith indicates that Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) never performed any Salaat out of its time except on these 2 occasions in his life. Bearing this in mind, one will understand why Sayyiduna Umar ibn al-Khattaab (Radhiallaahu Anhu), the second Khalifah of Rasulullah [Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam] had warned that to gather between 2 Salaats in one time is a major sin. (Muatta Imaam Muhammad vol.1 pg.572)
We hope that after understanding the above, you receive the clarity that you needed regarding this matter. May Allah Ta’ala protect us all from such confusion, Aameen.
and Allah Ta’ala Knows Best
Ml. Muhammad ibn Ml. Haroon Abasoomar
FACULTY OF SPECIALTY IN HADITH