What is the starting and ending time of each salat? How is it calculated? Is it based on astronomy and other scientific techlogies or is it based on sunnah and hadidth? What is meant by SHAFAQ AHMER AND SHAFAQ,ABYAZ? Please give a detail reply quoting relvents hadidts and their translation. This has become an issuse in USA,hence need direction and clarification. JAZAKALLAH.
Q: When does the time for Fajr begin and when does it end?
A: Begins at SUBHA SAADIQ (Early Dawn) and ends a little before SUNRISE.
Q: When does the time for Zohr begin and when does it end?
A: Begins after ZAWAAL ( Noon) and ends at the time that the shadow of any object becomes twice the length of the object plus the original shadow
that was there at MID-DAY (ZAWAAL).
Q: When does the time for Asr begin and when does it end?
A: It begins when Zohr time finishes and ends at a little before SUNSET. To delay the Asr Namaaz until the colour of the sun has turned PALE (yellow) is MAKROOH.
Q: What is the time for Maghrib Namaaz?
A: From after SUNSET up to the time the WHITENESS fades on the horizon.
Q: When does Esha time begin?
A: Esha time begins after the WHITENESS on the horizon disappears (about an hour and 15 minutes after sunset) and lasts up to a little before SUBHA SAADIQ (dawn). It is MUSTAHABB to read Esha Salaat before one third of the night has passed. It is MAKROOH to delay Esha Namaaz until after MIDNIGHT.
The times for each salah have been mentioned in ahadith, however modern methods are used to calculate them according to our timings.
Shafaq Ahmar means the redness on the horizon after sunset, while Shafaq abyad means the whiteness that remains after sunset.
And Allah Ta’ala knows best
Mufti Ebrahim Desai