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I have a few question regarding zakat.

Answered according to Hanafi Fiqh by Askimam.org

I have a few question regarding zakat.

1) Zakat can be given to the miskin. How do we define who is a miskin?

2) Zakat can be given to new muslims. How do we define ‘new’? One mth, one yr?

3) Also Zainab radiallahu anha was given permission to give zakat to her husband Abdullah Ibn Masud radiallahu anho. Was Abdullah Ibn Masud Radiallahu anho poor? I also heard that the term ‘zakat’ and ‘sadaqah’ was used interchangeably at that time. Is that true?

4) I also have some relatives who cannot be described as very poor. They have a house and they make do with some assistance from relatives and they have no problem with 3 meals a day and clothing etc. Can they be given zakat?

5) Can we give zakat to a madrasha or zakat can only be given to madrasha to bear the expense of one poor student in the madrasha?

Answer

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

Assalaamu `alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatoh

1. There exists a difference of opinion amongst the Scholars regarding the exact definition of Miskeen. Some Scholars define Miskeen as “a person that begs” whilst others define Miskeen as “one who does not possess food at all”. (Badai’ Al-Sanai’, vol 2, pg 150, Dar Al-Ihya al-Turath)

Some Scholars define Miskeen as “one who does not possess anything at all and relies on begging for his food and clothing. (Al-Durr and Radd, vol 2, pg 339, HM Sa’eed) 

There are other views as well. However, the outcome of all these views are the same ie A Miskeen is one who does not possess wealth or property to the value of nisab, thereby being eligible to receive zakat.

2. Zakat could be discharged to any Muslim. There is no specification in the Quran, Hadith or in any book of the Fiqh (Jurisprudence) that Zakat should be given to new Muslims specifically. Any Muslim that does not own wealth or property to the value of nisab, in excess of his/her basic needs, is eligible to receive zakat.

3. Abdullah bin Mas’ood (Radiyallaahu anhu) was a poor Sahabi. (Umdah Al-Qari, vol 9, pg 32, Rasheediyyah)

Zainab (Radiyallaahu anha), the wife of Abdullah bin Mas’ood, was permitted by Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) to spend on her husband. However, this was Sadaqah (charity) and not zakat. (Ibid).

It is impermissible for the wife to give zakat to the husband and vice versa. (Badai’ Al-Sanai’, vol 2, pg 144, Dar Al-Ihya al-Turath / Aap Ke Masaail, vol 3, pg 395)

The words Zakat and Sadaqah were not used interchangeably. Yes, at times the word Sadaqah is used to refer to zakat. However, this is not a general rule. Example: Allah Ta’ala mentions:

 

خُذْ مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ صَدَقَةً تُطَهِّرُهُمْ وَتُزَكِّيهِمْ بِهَا

“Take Sadaqah (ie Zakat) out of their wealth through which you may cleanse and purify them” (Taubah: 103)

Imam Qurtubi has mentioned that “whenever the word Sadaqah is generalised in the Quran, it refers to obligatory Sadaqah (zakat)” (Tafseer Al-Qurtubi, vol 8, pg156, Dar Al-Hadith).

4. In principle, any Muslim that does not own wealth or property to the value of nisab, in excess of his/her basic needs, is eligible to receive zakat. In the case of your relatives, it is understood that the only property they own is a home which is a basic necessity and does not make a person rich. Therefore, if the only property they own is a home and they do not possess any wealth or property in excess of their basic needs which equals to nisab, they will be eligible to receive Zakat.

5. Zakat could be given to a Madrassah in order to bear the expenses of the poor students who are deserving of zakat. However, it is important that these students appoint the Madrassah as their representatives in accepting Zakat on their behalf. If they have not appointed the Madrassah as their representatives, the Zakat will not be discharged. (Badai’ Al-Sanai’, vol 2, pg 142/3, Dar Al-Ihya al-Turath)

  

 

والمسكين الذي يسأل (بدائع الصنائع)

قوله ( من لا شيء له ) فيحتاج إلى المسألة لقوته وما يواري بدنه (رد المحتار مع الدر)

عن رائطة بنت عبد الله إمرأة عبد الله بن مسعود وكانت امرأة صنعا وليس لعبد الله بن مسعود مال وكانت تنفق عليه وعلى ولده معها فقالت والله لقد شغلتني أنت وولدك عن الصدقة فما أستطيع أن أتصدق معكم بشيء فقال ما أحب أنه لم يكن لك في ذلك أجر أن تفعلي فسألت رسول الله هي وهو فقالت يا رسول الله إني امرأة ذات صنعة أبيع منها وليس لولدي ولا لزوجي شيء فشغلوني فلا أتصدق فهل لي فيهم أجر فقال لك في ذلك أجر ما أنفقت عليهم فأنفقي عليهم ففي هذا الحديث أن تلك الصدقة مما لم يكن فيه زكاة والدليل على أن الصدقة كانت تطوعا (عمدة القاري)

ولأبي حنيفة أن أحد الزوجين ينتفع بمال صاحبه كما ينتفع بمال نفسه عرفا وعادة فلا يتكامل معنى التمليك ولهذا لم يجز للزوج أن يدفع إلى زوجته كذا الزوجة وتخرج هذه المسائل على أصل آخر سنذكره والله تعالى أعلم (بدائع الصنائع)

والصدقة متى اطلقت فى القران فهى صدقة الفرض (تفسير القرطبى)

وأما ركن الزكاة  فركن الزكاة هو إخراج جزء من النصاب إلى الله تعالى وتسليم ذلك إليه يقطع المالك يده عنه بتمليكه من الفقير وتسليمه إليه أو إلى يد من هو نائب عنه (بدائع الصنائع)

ولو دفع زكاته إلى الإمام أو إلى عامل الصدقة يجوز لأنه نائب عن الفقير في القبض فكأن قبضه كقبض الفقير (بدائع الصنائع)

ولا يجوز قبض الأجنبي للفقير البالغ العاقل إلا بتوكيله (بدائع الصنائع)

 

 

And Allah knows best

Wassalam

Ml. Talha Desai,
Student Darul Iftaa

Checked and Approved by:

Mufti Ebrahim Desai
Darul Iftaa, Madrassah In’aamiyyah

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