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# What is the ruling if a woman’s bleeding commences before the end of her clean habit?

As salamu alaykum I have a question regarding haydh. While studying, I learned that haydh lasts anywhere between 3-10 days and the period of purity between two haydh must be at least 15 days and there’s no limit to the maximum of purity. Simple, easy, understood well. That’s how I’ve always calculated it. However, I recently came across a book called Birgivi’s Manual and now I’ve become very confused. According to that, you’re also supposed to keep a track of your period of purity and each month, your period of purity must be the same as the previous month. So now, taking an example, sometimes my period of purity can be 15 days but other months, it can last up to 21 days and sometimes even more. My haydh usually lasts somewhere between 9-10 days (usually 9 days and some hours). So, last month, my period of purity was 21 days and 9 1/2 hours. This month however, after 19 days and 14 hours, my bleeding started. Now according to Behashti Zewar, since its over 15 days, it’ll be considered haydh. However, according to Birgivi’s Manual, since my period of purity has not been completed, for the next 2 days, even though I’m bleeding, I still have to pray and fast. To me, this is very confusing. No women ever had purity for the exact same amount of time every month and so this is very confusing to me why I have to keep praying although I may be having very heavy bleeding. Is this really the way we’re supposed to be calculating? Is there a difference of opinion? Can we simply follow Behashti Zewar? Because right now my bleeding will probably still end up being 9 days. And if I use Birgivis Manual, since I’ll have to fast and pray for 2 more days, that’ll mean my haydh will end up being 7 days according to that. So according to Birgivis Manual, my period of purity must remain firm so according to that, I’ll be praying when I’m bleeding but then my habit of bleeding will never be firm anymore because some months I may start bleeding after 16 days and since the month before my period of purity was 21 days, I’ll have to still pray 5 days of heavy bleeding but not pray when my period of purity of month before ends. That sounds very difficult to me because it’s hard to keep doing wudhu and praying with such heavy bleeding and anyways, more than 15 days of purity have passed! Please, your help is very needed. Jazaakallaahu khayran. May Allah ‎put barakah in your time and knowledge. Was salam

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

Sister in Islam.

At the outset we apologize for the belated response. The issue required research.

Birgivi’s manual explains the principle issue and it is correct.

In principle, a woman should maintain her clean period as well as her menstrual period.

However, the complexity arises when a woman’s bleeding commences before her menstrual habit i.e. before the end of her clean habit, should she still maintain her clean habit and menstrual habit or not?

If a woman’s bleeding commences before the end of her clean habit and if the number of days left of her clean habit added to the number of days of her menstrual habit exceeds ten days, then she will maintain her habit by completing her clean period. In this instance she will perform Salaah and Fast till the end of her clean habit even though she is bleeding in those days. The bleeding in those days will considered as Istihaadah. However, if the number of days left of her clean habit added to the number of days of her menstrual habit does not exceed ten days, then she will not maintain her clean habit. In this instance she will stop performing Salaah and Fasting as soon as the blood commences even though she did not complete her clean habit[1]. The bleeding in this instance will be Haydh.

Below are charts explaining the above mentioned

The coloured blocks represent the days of bleeding in all the charts below

Chart one

 Normal Tuhr (clean period) Normal menstrual habit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

 Change of  Tuhr (clean period) Bleeding started Normal menstrual habit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Bleeding commenced 1 day before the end of the clean period

In the above mentioned example, the woman’s clean habit was 21 days. However, her bleeding commenced after 20 days, one day before the end of her clean habit. Her menstrual habit was 9 days.

She will not maintain her clean habit (which was 21 days) because the 9 days of her menstrual habit added to the 1 day left of her clean habit (which is day 21) does not exceed 10 days, hence, she will stop performing Salaah and fasting from day 21. The full 10 days will be Haydh. It will be assumed that her menstrual cycle has changed.

Chart two

 Normal Tuhr (clean period) Normal menstrual habit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

 Change of Tuhr (clean period) Bleeding commenced Normal menstrual habit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Bleeding commenced 2 days before the end of the clean period

In the above mentioned example, the woman’s clean habit was 21 days. Bleeding commenced after 19 days, 2 days before the end of her clean habit. Her menstrual habit was 9 days.

She will maintain her previous clean period (which was 21 days) because the 9 days of her menstrual habit added to the 2 days left of her clean habit (which are days 20 and 21) exceed 10 days hence, she will perform Salaah and Fast on day 20 and 21 even though she is bleeding. The bleeding will be considered (Istihaadah) dysfunctional bleeding and the rules of a (Mazoor) excused person will apply. You may refer to #37481 for the rulings of a Mazoor

In the enquired situation, your bleeding commenced 2 days before the end of your clean habit. Your menstrual habit is 9 days. Adding the 2 days to the 9 days exceeds ten days (i.e. The number of days remaining in your purity habit –which is 2 days-added to the number of days of your menstrual habit-which is 9 days- reaches eleven days).

You should therefore, maintain your habit and continue fasting and performing salaah in the two days -i.e. day 20 and 21- remaining of your clean habit even though you are bleeding. Thereafter, you should stop performing Salaah and Fasting till the end of your Haydh.

It is important to take note that the abovementioned is based on the assumption that you would bleed for the entire menstrual habit thus rendering day 20 and 21 (Istihaadah) dysfunctional bleeding. However, the possibility remains that you may not bleed for the entire menstrual habit, thus not bleeding for more than 10 days. From this we understand that day 20 and 21 have the possibility of being either Haydh or Istihaadah which we can only ascertain when the bleeding stops.

When we are not sure whether the blood is Haydh or Istihaadah, it will be considered Istihaadah based on caution (i.e. to perform Salaah in the state of Haydh is better than not performing Salaah in the state of purity) and probability[2] (i.e. you would most probability still bleed for the entire duration of your menstrual habit)

The two possibilities of day 20 and 21 are elaborated below

1)    If your bleeding does not exceed ten full days (240 hours), then the entire period will be considered as Haydh (menstrual blood) including day 20 and 21[3]. Since you will not know whether the bleeding will exceed 10 days or not, the ruling is given on the most cautious and likely situation (which is that you would also bleed on the days of your menstrual habit, thus making the total number of days exceed ten days), therefore, you had to initially maintain your purity habit.

Below is a chart explaining the above mentioned

 Normal Tuhr (clean period) Normal menstrual habit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

 Change of  Tuhr (clean period) Bleeding commenced Normal menstrual habit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10 11 Change of clean period from 21 days to 19 days. You would only know this when the bleeding did not exceed 10 days. Therefore, maintain the previous clean period of 21 days by performing Salaah on day 20 and 21. New menstrual habit (All these days will be consider as Haydh, because the total number of bleeding days did not exceed 10 days)

The purity habit will change from 21 days to 19 days.[4]

There will be no sin for performing salaah and fasting on days 20 and 21 on the assumption it was Istihaadah. If it was a compulsory fast, then it will have to be redone (Qadhaa).

2)    If your bleeding exceeds ten full days (240 hours), then, only the bleeding in the days of the menstrual habit will be considered as Haydh, hence, the bleeding found on day 20 and 21 were Istihaadah (dysfunctional bleeding) thus your habit is maintained.[5]

Below is a chart explaining the above mentioned

 Clean habit (21 days) menstrual ‎habit (9 days) ‎ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

 Change of  Tuhr (clean period) Bleeding commenced Normal menstrual habit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Only these days will be considered as Haydh since the total days of bleeding exceeded 10 days.

Your clean period will remain 21 days and your menstrual habit 9 days

If you did not perform salaah and fast on day 20 and 21, you will have to make up for all the salaats and fasts missed in these 2 days.

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Muhammed Al-Ameen Bin Moulana Ismail Akoo

Student Darul Iftaa

Newcastle; KZN, South Africa

Checked and Approved by,

Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

______

[1]

المبسوط للسرخسيباب تقديم الحيض و تاخيره

الجزء 3صفحة 180(‏(دار المعرفة – بيروت)‏

المرأة تستفتي أنها ترى الدم قبل أيامها فعندهما تؤمر بترك الصلاة إذا كان الباقي من أيام طهرها ما لو ضم إلى أيامها لم يجاوز العشرة؛ لأنها ترى الدم عقيب طهر صحيح فكان حيضا للإمكان

المحيط البرهانيالفصل الثامن في الحيض

الجزء 1صفحة 243(دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت – لبنان)

امرأة تستفتي أنها ترى الدم قبل أيامها ذكر الصدر الشهيد رحمه الله في «مختصر كتاب الحيض» : أنها تؤمر بترك الصلاة إذا كان الباقي من أيام طهرها ما لو ختم إلى أيام حيضها لا يجاوز العشرة؛ لأنها رأت الدم عقيب طهر صحيح، فكان حيضاً لكن بهذا الشرط

فتح القديرفصل في الاسار و غيرها

الجزء 1صفحة 178 (دار الفكر)

وما ذكر في الخلاصة في آخر الفصل الثالث إذا رأت قبل أيامها والباقى في أيام طهرها ما لو ضم إلى أيام حيضها لا يجاوز العشرة تؤمر بترك الصلاة يصح مطلقا على قول أبى يوسف ومحمد القائل بالإبدال

منهل الواردين شرح ذخر المتأهلين و النساءالفصل السادس

صفحة 273 (دار الفكر)

[2] [منهل الواردين، ص ٢٦٩، دار الفكر (٢٠٠٥)]
أو ابتدأ) الدم (قبلها) أي: قبل العادة. فإنها تترك الصلاة كما رأته لأحتمال انتقال العادة (إلا إذا كان الباقي من أيام طهرها ما لق ضم الي حيضها جاوز العشرة). (مثلا): (امرأة عادتها في الحيض سبعة وفي الطهر عشرون. رأت بعد خمسة عشر من طهرها دما تؤمر بالصلاة إلى عشرين) لأن الظاهر أنها تري أيضا في السبعة أيام عادتها، فإذا رأت قبل عادتها خمسة يزيد الدم على العشرة؛ وإذا زاد عليها ترد إلى عادتها. فلا يجوز لها ترك الصلاة قبل أيام عادتها، هذا ما ظهر لي [منهل الواردين، ص ٢٦٩، دار الفكر (٢٠٠٥)]

[3]

المبسوط للسرخسيباب تقديم الحيض و تاخيره

الجزء 3صفحة 180(‏(دار المعرفة – بيروت)‏

وهو أنها إذا رأت قبل أيامها ما لا يمكن أن يجعل حيضا بانفراده، ورأت في أيامها ما يمكن أن يجعل حيضا بانفراده ولم يجاوز الكل عشرة فالكل حيض بالاتفاق؛

و في صفحة 182 في نفس الباب

وإن رأت قبل أيامها وفي أيامها، وبعد أيامها فعلى أصل أبي يوسف ومحمد رحمهما الله تعالى حكم المتقدم والمتأخر سواء لا يفصل البعض عن البعض ولكن إن لم يجاوز الكل عشرة فالكل حيض، وإن جاوز كان حيضها أيام عادتها دون ما تقدم وما تأخ

المشكاه في أحكام الطهارة و الصلاةالحيض والنفاس

الجزء 1صفحة 115

لو كانت عادتها في الحيض سبعة وفي الطهر عشرون، رأت بعد سبعة عشر طهراً تؤمر بتركها من حين رأت؛ لأن عادتها سبعة وقد رأت قبلها ثلاثة فلم يزد على العشرة، فيحكم بانتقال العادة، ولا ينظر إلى احتمال أن ترى أيضاً بعد أيام عادتها فترد إلى عادتها، وتكون الثلاثة حيض؛ لأنه احتمال بعيد، فلذا تترك الصلاة فيها

منهل الواردين شرح ذخر المتأهلين و النساءالفصل الثاني

صفحة 183 (دار الفكر)

[4]

منهل الواردين شرح ذخر المتأهلين و النساءالفصل الثاني

صفحة 192 (دار الفكر)

[5]

‏ النهر الفائقباب الحيض ‏

الجزء 17صفحة 136(دار الكتب العلمية)

رأت قبل عادتها بيوم دما وعشرة طهرا ويوما دما فالعشرة التي لا دم فيها‏ حيض فإن كان لها عادة ردت إليها قيل هي آخر أقوال الإمام وعليهاالفتوى

نهاية النقاية على شرح الوقايةكتاب الطهارة

الجزء 2صفحة 123‏( دار الوراق، عمان، الأردن، 2005م.)

وإن كان ثلاثةَ أيام أو أكثر، فعند أبي يوسفَ – رضي الله عنه -، وهو قولُ أبي حنيفةَ – رضي الله عنه – آخراً لا يفصل، وإن كان ‏أكثر من عشرةِ أيام، فيجوزُ بدايةُ الحيض وختمُهُ بالطُّهْرِ على هذا القول فقط( 4)، وقد ذُكِرَ أنّ الفتوى على هذا تيسيراً على ‏المُفْتِي والمستفتي‎.

‎……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..‎

‎لكن يشترط إحاطة الدم من الجانبين، كما إذا رأت قبل عادتها يوماً دماً وعشرةً طهراً ويوماً دماً، فالعشرة حيض. ينظر: ((فتح ‏باب العناية))‏‎(1: 209).‎

This answer was collected from Askimam.org, which is operated under the supervision of Mufti Ebrahim Desai from South Africa.