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What is our response to the person who argues for the permissibility of temporary marriage on the basis that some eminent Companions allowed it?

Answered according to Shafi'i Fiqh by Qibla.com

Answered by Shaykh Amjad Rasheed

What is our response to the person who argues for the permissibility of temporary marriage on the basis that some eminent Companions allowed it?

Answer:
In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

In the name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Most Compassionate

The foremost Companion who was alleged to have permitted temporary marriage was Sayyiduna Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him. And the answer to this is:

Temporary marriage was permitted and outlawed several times as you will find recorded in Fath al-Bari and other [works] from the words of the Imams of Hadith. And the end of the matter was the outlawing [of temporary marriage] as was established in the Sahihain and other [books].

Based on this, the issue is not without some possibility that Ibn Abbas was aware of the unlawfulness [of temporary marriage] or was unaware. Even with the two possibilities, there is no proof that he spoke of its permissibility. If he was unaware [of its unlawfulness] then the matter is clear and that is: he came to a verdict of permissibility based on what [was the case] initially, where it was allowed. Then its permissibility was abrogated by its unlawfulness and he was unaware of this, so he is excused. But it is not permissible for anyone to follow him in this [matter], because whoever knows a proof is [held up] over the one who doesn’t know. And the benefit of the doubt should be given to Ibn Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, as with the rest of the Companions, that they hastened to fulfill the commands [of the religion]. Thus, if Ibn Abbas had been aware of this, he would not have allowed himself to go against it.

But, supposing that he knew that the last of the matter was its unlawfulness – and this has been established from him in Bukhari and others that Sayyiduna Ali and others informed him of it, then the response is:

That it was narrated from him that he went back on what he had said when he realized that the final matter was its unlawfulness. If this is established, then this is a non-issue and there is no debate.

If it can’t established that he went back [from allowing temporary marriage] then this is only what a Companion has said, and he and others [in this matter] cannot be proof in the face of clear, rigorously authenticated texts. The proof is in the Book of Allah and the tradition of His Messenger, peace be upon him. So what has been established from them textually takes precedence over anything else.

There is general conviction among the Imams after Ibn Abbas that temporary marriage is unlawful, with no difference among any of the Imams of Ahl al-Sunnah. The only ones who differed were the Shiites, and their differing is not considered. So the consensus of the Imams after Ibn Abbas is proof over everyone else.

But what of the question of how Ibn Abbas could have kept on saying that [temporary marriage] was permissible in spite of what was established in Bukhari and other [books] that he knew of its abrogation?

The answer: His persistence in saying that [temporary marriage] was permissible should be interpreted as his not having received evidence of its abrogation. For this reason, he kept saying that it was permissible. But if he had received evidence of its abrogation and conceded this, then far be it from him and other Companions that they would insist on going against a text of the Messenger, peace be upon him. So his excuse is that he was not certain of its abrogation until he was told of it by some of them [Companions].

Ibn Hajar said in Fath al-Bari: “And the righteous predecessors differed about temporary marriage. Ibn Mundhir said: ‘The earliest Companions allowed it, and I don’t know of anyone today that permits it, except some of the Rafidites [a Shiite sect]. And there is no significance for any saying which goes against the Book of Allah and the tradition of His Messenger.’ And ‘Iyad said: ‘Then occurred the consensus of all the scholars that it was unlawful, except for the Rafidites. As for Ibn Abbas, it has been narrated from him that he allowed it. And it has also been narrated that he went back on this [position].’ And Qurtubi said: The narrations all agree that temporary marriage was not allowed for very long and that it was outlawed. Then the predecessors and the successors come to a consensus that it was unlawful, except for those of the Rafidites, who are not paid heed to. And a number of the Imams have determined that Ibn Abbas was alone in permitting it. This is a famous question that is a rare example of a difference of opinion. But Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr said: Ibn Abbas’s associates from Mecca and Yemen allowed it. Then the jurisprudents of the various Muslim lands agreed on its unlawfulness.”

As to narrations of its permissibility from other than Ibn Abbas from the Companions and the next generation, these have been explained by Ibn Hajar in al-Fath that some of [these narrations] have not been established, and who was established [to have permitted it] went back on [his position], so what he had said [previously] should be reviewed.

The upshot is that the consensus of the recognized Imams that temporary marriage is unlawful nullifies all controversy about this issue.

And Allah alone gives success.

Amjad Rasheed

[Translated by Ustadha Zaynab Ansari ]

 

السؤال: ما هو جوابنا على مَن يستدل على جواز المتعة بأن بعض كبار الصحابة أجازه؟ الجواب : أكبر من تزعم القول بإباحة المتعة من الصحابة هو سيدنا ابن عباس رضي الله عنه ، والجواب عنه : أن نكاح المتعة قد أبيح وحُرِّم أكثر من مرّة كما تجده مسطوراً في “فتح الباري” وغيره من كلام أئمة الحديث ، وأن آخر الأمر كان التحريم كما ثبت في الصحيحين وغيرهما ، وعليه فلا يخلو الأمر من أن ابن عباس قد اطلع على أن آخر الأمر كان التحريم أم لم يكن قد اطلع ؛ وعلى كلا الاحتمالين ليس في قوله بالإباحة حجة ، أما إن لم يكن قد اطلع فالأمرُ واضحٌ وهو أنه كان يفتي بالإباحة بناءً على ما كان أول الأمر من جوازها ثم نُسخ الجواز بالتحريم فلم يطلع عليه فهو معذورٌ لكن لا يحلُّ لأحد تقليده فيه ؛ لأن من علم حجة على من لم يعلم ، وحُسنُ الظن بابن عباس رضي الله عنه كبقية الصحابة أنهم يبادرون لامتثال الأمر فإنه لو اطلع عليه لما ساغ له مخالفته . أما على فرض أنه اطلع على ما كان في آخر الأمر من التحريم وهذا هو الثابتُ عنه في البخاري وغيره أنه قد أطلعه عليه سيدنا عليٌّ وغيره ، فالجوابُ عنه بأمور ؛ أولاً : أنه روي عنه أنه رجع عن قوله لمَّا عَلِمَ أن آخر الأمر كان التحريم ، فإن ثبت ذلك فقد انتفى الإشكال والخلاف . ثانياً : إذا لم يثبت رجوعُه فلا يعدو قولُه أنه قولُ صحابيٍّ وهو وغيره ليسوا بحجة في مقابلة النصوص الصحيحة الصريحة فالحجةُ في كتاب الله وسنة رسوله صلى الله عليه وسلم فما ثبت فيهما نصاً قُدم على غيره . ثالثاً : أنه قد انعقد إجماعُ الأمة بعد ابن عباس على تحريم المتعة ، لا خلاف في هذا بين أئمة أهل السنة وإنما خالف فيه الشيعة وهم لا يعتدُّ بخلافهم ، فإجماع الأئمة بعد ابن عباس حجةٌ على كل أحد . أما ما قد يستشكل من أنه كيف يسوغ لابن عباس أن يبقى على القول بالإباحة مع أنه ثبت في البخاري وغيره أنه علم النسخ ؟ فالجوابُ : أن يحمل بقاؤه على القول بالإباحة على أنه لم يسلم دعوى النسخ فلذا ساغ له البقاء على القول بالإباحة ، أما لو أنه سلم بالنسخ فحاشاه وغيره من الصحابة من الإصرار على خلاف نصِّ رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ، فعذرُه إذن أنه لم يثبت عنده النسخ حتى بعد أن أعلمه به بعضهم . قال الحافظ ابنُ حجر في “فتح الباري” :” وقد اختلف السلف في نكاح المتعة , قال ابن المنذر :” جاء عن الأوائل الرخصة فيها , ولا أعلم اليوم أحداً يجيزها إلا بعض الرافضة , ولا معنى لقول يخالف كتاب الله وسنة رسوله “. وقال عياض :” ثم وقع الإجماع من جميع العلماء على تحريمها إلا الروافض ، وأما ابن عباس فروي عنه أنه أباحها , وروي عنه أنه رجع عن ذلك “… وقال القرطبي : الروايات كلها متفقة على أن زمن إباحة المتعة لم يطل وأنه حرم , ثم أجمع السلف والخلف على تحريمها إلا من لا يُلْتَفت إليه من الروافض . وجزم جماعة من الأئمة بتفرد ابن عباس بإباحتها فهي من المسألة المشهورة وهي ندرة المخالف , ولكن قال ابن عبد البر : أصحاب ابن عباس من أهل مكة واليمن على إباحتها , ثم اتفق فقهاء الأمصار على تحريمها “. اهـ أما ما روي في الإباحة عن غير ابن عباس من الصحابة والتابعين فقد بين الحافظُ ابنُ حجر في “الفتح” أن بعضه غير ثابت عنهم ، ومن ثبت عنه ذلك فقد رجع ، فليراجع كلامه . والحاصل أن إجماع العلماء المعتد بهم على تحريم نكاح المتعة مبطلٌ لكل تشغيب يقع في المسألة ، والله الموفق .

 

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