What is the ruling of music in the Shafi`i school?

Answered according to Shafi'i Fiqh by

Answered by Shaykh Amjad Rasheed

What is the ruling of music in the Shafi`i school?

In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

It is prohibited in our school to use musical instruments, and also prohibited to listen to them.

Our great scholars (imams) did not make exception of anything but the duff [a shallow drum], even if it has metallic disks in the sides. The duff is permitted for both men and women, on weddings days and also at other times.

They have also made exception of the tabl, a long drum, on condition that it be of the same width in the middle as both ends. The kuba, though, which is a drum narrow in the middle, is prohibited according to the relied upon position in our school.

As for the yara`, which is a kind of wind instrument [akin to a reed], the relied upon position is that it is prohibited. It is said [in a weaker opinion] that it is permitted, and this is the position followed by many of the Shafiis of Hadramawt. This is a summary of the Shafi`i school’s position on musical instruments. Whoever seeks more details should check Imam Ibn Hajar al-Haytami’s work, Kaff al-ra`a` `an muharramat al-lahw wa’l sama`.

And Allah alone gives success.

Amjad Rasheed

(Translated by Faraz Rabbani)

السؤال الثامن : : ما هو حكم الموسيقى في المذهب الشافعي ؟ الجواب : يحرم في مذهبنا الضربُ على آلات الملاهي ( الموسيقى ) والاستماعُ إليها ، ولم يستثنِ أئمتُنا إلا الدُّفَّ ولو كان له جلاجل فهو مباح للرجال والنساء في أيام الزواج وغيرها ، واستثنوا أيضاً الطَّبْلَ المستوي الطرفين والوسط ، أما الكوبةُ ويسميها البعضُ الدِّرْبكة أو الطبلة وهي الضيقةُ من الوسط فهي حرامٌ على المعتمد عندنا ، وأما اليَراعُ وهو نوع من المزامير فالمعتمدُ حرمته ، وقيل : بإباحته ، وعليه عملُ كثير من أهل حضرموت من الشافعية . هذا حاصل مذهبنا في الآلات الموسيقية ومن أراد الزيادة فعليه بكتاب “كفّ الرَّعاع عن محرمات اللهو والسماع” للإمام ابن حجر الهيتمي . 

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