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May I take wages from my partnership business?

Answered as per Shafi'i Fiqh by Qibla.com

Answered by Shaykh Amjad Rasheed
Translated by Shaykh Hamza Karamali, SunniPath Academy Teacher

I am starting up my own business with 2 other muslim partners. Is it halal for some if not all the partners to take out profits from this business as well as a salary for the man power hours they put in? Please give the refences from the daleel and fiqh books

Answer:
In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

Position 1: Profit must be distributed according to share of ownership

Scholars have differed regarding the answer to this question. The position of our school is that the profit from a shared business venture is distributed between the partners in proportion to each partnerโ€™s investment, regardless of whether the partners do the same amount of work or whether they do different amounts of work. So, for example, if there are three partners, and each one of them owns a third of the company, then each partner has a right to one third of the resultant profits. If, however, one of the three partners owns half of the company, and the other two partners share the remaining half (i.e. a quarter each), then the partner who owns half of the company rightfully owns half of the profits, and each of the other two partners has a right to a quarter of the profits. This is all irrespective of whether they do the same amount of work in order to make their investments profitable or whether some of them put in more work, or whether some work to the exclusion of others. According to the Shafi`i school, it is not permissible to contractually stipulate something that goes against the above, and if something that goes against the above is stipulated in the contract, both the condition and the contract become void. This issue has been explicitly stated in the Minhaj of Imam Nawawi and its commentaries. [h: See, for example, this discussion in al-Khatib al-Shirbiniโ€™s Mughni al-Muhtaj. Shaykh Amjad quotes it in full in his answer below, but I have omitted it in the translation for the sake of brevity.]

This is also the position of the Maliki school.

Position 2: Profit may be distributed disproportionately in return for extra work

The Hanafis and the Hanbalis, however, have disagreed. The relied-upon books of their schools explicitly state that if it is made contractually binding on some partners to perform a certain type of work, then these partners may in turn contractually stipulate that they will get a greater share of the resultant profits than simply the proportion of their investment. (cf. Ibn `Abidin, Hashiya; and Buhuti, Kashshaf al-Qina`)

There is no unequivocal text from the Quran and sunna to conclusively decide this case, nor is there any scholarly consensus on the issue, and the conclusions of all of the above-mentioned jurists have been reached through juristic reasoning (ijtihad) and analogy (qiyas). Anyone interested in the proofs of the Shafi`i school may refer to Imam Mawardiโ€™s al-Hawi al-Kabir, where he comprehensively explained all the proofs of the Shafi`i scholars on this issue.

Workaround: It is possible to assign a fixed salary through a vow

All the above only relates to what a partner is legally entitled to by virtue of a conditioned or unconditioned contract. If, however, some of the partners voluntarily choose to give a certain sum of money to a particular partner or to someone who puts more work into the company than the others, this is completely permissible. It is not, however, obligatory [h: or contractually binding].

The partners can make it obligatory on themselves to give a certain sum of money to a partner who puts in more work than others by vowing to do so. They would say, for example, to a particular partner, โ€œIf you do such-and-such, then I owe it to Allah to give you such-and-such amount of money.โ€ When the partner performs the action described in the vow, it will become obligatory on those who took the vow to deliver the money to him.

And Allah Most High knows best.

ุงู„ุณุคุงู„: ุณูˆู ุฃูุชุญู ุดุฑูƒุฉ ู…ุน ุดุฑูŠูƒูŠู† ุขุฎุฑูŠู†ุŒ ู‡ู„ ูŠุญู„ู‘ู ู„ุจุนุถ ุงู„ุดุฑูƒุงุก ุฃูˆ ุงู„ูƒู„ ุฃู† ูŠุฃุฎุฐูˆุง ุฑุงุชุจุงู‹ ุดู‡ุฑูŠุงู‹ ู…ูุนูŽูŠู‘ูŽู†ุงู‹ ู„ุนู…ู„ู‡ู… ุงู„ุฐูŠ ูŠุจุฐู„ูˆู†ู‡ ุฎุตูˆุตุงู‹ ุฅุฐุง ูƒุงู† ุงู„ุนู…ู„ู ูƒุซูŠุฑุงู‹ ุฒูŠุงุฏุฉู‹ ุนู„ู‰ ู‚ุฏุฑู ู…ู† ุงู„ุฑุจุญ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ูŠุณุชุญู‚ูˆู†ูŽู‡ู ู…ู† ุญูŠุซ ูƒูˆู†ู‡ู… ุดุฑูƒุงุกุŸ ุฃุฑุฌูˆ ุฃู† ุชุฐูƒุฑูˆุง ู„ูŠ ุงู„ุฃุฏู„ุฉ ูˆุชู†ุณุจูˆุง ูุชูˆุงูƒู… ุฅู„ู‰ ูƒุชุจ ุงู„ูู‚ู‡ ุงู„ู…ุนุชู…ุฏุฉ.

ุงู„ุฌูˆุงุจ: ุงุฎุชู„ู ุงู„ุนู„ู…ุงุก ููŠ ุญูƒู… ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู…ุณุฃู„ุฉุŒ ูˆู…ุฐู‡ุจูู†ุง ุฃู†ู‘ูŽ ุงู„ุฑุจุญูŽ ููŠ ุดุฑูƒุฉ ุงู„ุฃู…ูˆุงู„ ูŠูู‚ู’ุณูŽู…ู ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุดุฑูƒุงุก ูƒู„ู‘ูŒ ุจู‚ุฏุฑ ู…ุงู„ู‡ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ุฃุฏุฎู„ู‡ ุงู„ุดุฑูƒุฉุŒ ุณูˆุงุกูŒ ุชุณุงูˆูˆุง ููŠ ุงู„ุนู…ู„ ุฃู… ุชูุงูˆุชูˆุงุŒ ูู„ูˆ ูƒุงู†ูˆุง ุซู„ุงุซุฉู‹ ูˆู„ูƒู„ู‘ู ูˆุงุญุฏู ู…ู†ู‡ู… ููŠ ุงู„ุดุฑูƒุฉ ุซู„ุซู ุงู„ู…ุงู„ุ› ุงุณุชุญู‚ู‘ูŽ ูƒู„ู‘ู ูˆุงุญุฏู ุซู„ุซูŽ ุงู„ุฑุจุญ. ูˆู„ูˆ ูƒุงู† ู„ูˆุงุญุฏู ู…ู† ุงู„ุซู„ุงุซุฉ ู†ุตูู ู…ุงู„ู ุงู„ุดุฑูƒุฉ ูˆู„ู„ุขุฎุฑูŠู† ุงู„ู†ุตูู ุงู„ุขุฎุฑุŒ ุฑุจุนุงู‹ ุฑุจุนุงู‹ุ› ุงุณุชุญู‚ู‘ูŽ ุตุงุญุจู ุงู„ู†ุตู ู†ุตููŽ ุงู„ุฑุจุญุŒ ูˆุงุณุชุญู‚ู‘ูŽ ุงู„ุขุฎุฑุงู† ูƒู„ู‘ู ูˆุงุญุฏู ุฑุจุนูŽ ุงู„ุฑุจุญุŒ ูˆู‡ูƒุฐุงุŒ ุณูˆุงุกูŒ ุนู…ู„ูˆุง ููŠ ุชู†ู…ูŠุฉ ุงู„ู…ุงู„ ุฌู…ูŠุนุงู‹ ูˆุชุณุงูˆูˆุง ููŠ ุฐู„ูƒ ุฃู… ุชูุงูˆุชูˆุง ุฃูˆ ุงู†ูุฑุฏ ุจุนุถูู‡ู… ุจุงู„ุนู…ู„ ุฏูˆู† ุจุนุถ, ูˆู„ุง ูŠุฌูˆุฒ ุนู†ุฏู†ุง ุงุดุชุฑุงุทู ู…ุง ูŠุฎุงู„ูู ู‡ุฐุง ููŠ ุงู„ุนู‚ุฏุ› ูุฅู† ุดูุฑูุทูŽ ุฐู„ูƒ ูุณุฏ ุงู„ุดุฑุทู ูˆุงู„ุนู‚ุฏู. ูˆุงู„ู…ุณุฃู„ุฉู ู…ู†ุตูˆุตูŒ ุนู„ูŠู‡ุง ููŠ “ุงู„ู…ู†ู‡ุงุฌ” ูˆุดุฑูˆุญู‡.

ู‚ุงู„ ููŠ “ุงู„ู…ุบู†ูŠ” ู…ุน “ุงู„ู…ู†ู‡ุงุฌ”:” (ูˆุงู„ุฑุจุญู ูˆุงู„ุฎุณุฑุงู†ู ุนู„ู‰ ู‚ุฏุฑ ุงู„ู…ุงู„ูŠู†) ุจุงุนุชุจุงุฑ ุงู„ู‚ูŠู…ุฉ ู„ุง ุงู„ุฃุฌุฒุงุก ุดุฑุทุง ุฐู„ูƒ ุฃูˆ ู„ุง (ุชุณุงูˆูŠุง) ุฃูŠ: ุงู„ุดุฑูŠูƒุงู† (ููŠ ุงู„ุนู…ู„ ุฃูˆ ุชูุงูˆุชุง) ููŠู‡; ู„ุฃู† ุฐู„ูƒ ุซู…ุฑุชูู‡ู…ุง ููƒุงู† ุนู„ู‰ ู‚ุฏุฑู‡ู…ุงุŒ ูƒู…ุง ู„ูˆ ูƒุงู† ุจูŠู†ู‡ู…ุง ุดุฌุฑุฉูŒ ูุฃุซู…ุฑุช ุฃูˆ ุดุงุฉูŒ ูู†ูŽุชูŽุฌูŽุช (ูุฅู† ุดุฑุทุง ุฎู„ุงููŽู‡) ุจุฃู† ุดุฑุทุง ุงู„ุชุณุงูˆูŠูŽ ููŠ ุงู„ุฑุจุญ ูˆุงู„ุฎุณุฑุงู† ู…ุน ุงู„ุชูุงุถู„ ููŠ ุงู„ู…ุงู„ูŠู†, ุฃูˆ ุงู„ุชูุงุถู„ูŽ ููŠ ุงู„ุฑุจุญ ูˆุงู„ุฎุณุฑุงู† ู…ุน ุงู„ุชุณุงูˆูŠ ููŠ ุงู„ู…ุงู„ูŠู† (ูุณุฏ ุงู„ุนู‚ุฏ) ู„ุฃู†ู‡ ู…ุฎุงู„ููŒ ู„ู…ูˆุถูˆุน ุงู„ุดุฑูƒุฉ, ูˆู„ูˆ ุดุฑุทุง ุฒูŠุงุฏุฉู‹ ููŠ ุงู„ุฑุจุญ ู„ู„ุฃูƒุซุฑ ู…ู†ู‡ู…ุง ุนู…ู„ุงู‹ ุจุทู„ ุงู„ุดุฑุทู ูƒู…ุง ู„ูˆ ุดุฑุทุง ุงู„ุชูุงูˆุช ููŠย  ุงู„ุฎุณุฑุงู† (ููŠุฑุฌุน ูƒู„) ู…ู†ู‡ู…ุง (ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุขุฎุฑ ุจุฃุฌุฑุฉู ุนู…ู„ูู‡ู ููŠ ู…ุงู„ู‡) ุฃูŠ: ุงู„ุขุฎุฑ ูƒุงู„ู‚ุฑุงุถ ุฅุฐุง ูุณุฏ “. ุงู†ุชู‡ู‰

ูˆู‚ูˆู„ู‡ (ูˆู„ูˆ ุดุฑุทุง ุฒูŠุงุฏุฉู‹ ููŠ ุงู„ุฑุจุญ ู„ู„ุฃูƒุซุฑ ู…ู†ู‡ู…ุง ุนู…ู„ุงู‹ ุจุทู„ ุงู„ุดุฑุทู) ุธุงู‡ุฑูู‡ู ุนุฏู…ู ูุณุงุฏ ุงู„ุนู‚ุฏุŒ ู„ูƒู†ู‘ูŽ ุชู…ุซูŠู„ูŽู‡ ุญูƒู…ูŽ ู…ุณุฃู„ุชู†ุง ุจู…ุณุฃู„ุฉ ุดุฑุท ุงู„ุชูุงูˆุช ููŠ ุงู„ุฎุณุฑุงู†ุŒ ูˆุฑุจุทูŽู‡ุง ุจุงู„ุชูุฑูŠุน ููŠ ู‚ูˆู„ ุงู„ู…ุชู† (ููŠุฑุฌุน ูƒู„ู‘ูŒ ุฅู„ุฎ) ูŠู‚ุชุถูŠ ูุณุงุฏูŽ ุงู„ุนู‚ุฏ. ุซู… ุฑุฃูŠุชู ุงู„ุนู„ุงู…ุฉูŽ ุงู„ุจูุฌูŽูŠู’ุฑูู…ููŠ ููŠ “ุญุงุดูŠุชู‡ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุฅู‚ู†ุงุน” ู„ู„ุฎุทูŠุจ ุงู„ุดุฑุจูŠู†ูŠ ุฐูƒุฑูŽ ู…ุซู„ูŽ ู…ุง ู…ุฑู‘ูŽ ู†ู‚ู„ุงู‹ ุนู† ุงู„ุนู„ุงู…ุฉ ุงู„ู‚ู„ูŠูˆุจูŠุ› ูุฅู† ุงู„ุฎุทูŠุจูŽ ุนุจู‘ูŽุฑ ููŠ “ุงู„ุฅู‚ู†ุงุน” ุนู† ุงู„ู…ุณุฃู„ุฉ ุจู…ุซู„ ุชุนุจูŠุฑ “ุงู„ู…ุบู†ูŠ” ูู‚ุงู„ ุงู„ุจูุฌูŽูŠู’ุฑูู…ููŠ:” ูˆู‚ูˆู„ู‡ (ุจุทู„ ุงู„ุดุฑุท) ุธุงู‡ุฑูู‡ู ุจู‚ุงุกู ุงู„ุนู‚ุฏ ุตุญูŠุญุงู‹ุŒ ูˆูƒู„ุงู…ูู‡ู ุจุนุฏู ูŠุฏู„ู‘ู ุนู„ู‰ ูุณุงุฏู‡, ูˆู‡ูˆ ูƒุฐู„ูƒ ู‚ ู„ -ุฃูŠ: ู‚ู„ูŠูˆุจูŠ-, ูู‚ูˆู„ู‡ ( ุจุทู„ ุงู„ุดุฑุท) ุฃูŠ: ูˆุงู„ุนู‚ุฏ “. ุงู‡ู€

ู‡ุฐุง ู‡ูˆ ู…ุฐู‡ุจู†ุง ูˆุจู‡ ู‚ุงู„ ุงู„ู…ุงู„ูƒูŠุฉูุŒ ูˆุฎุงู„ู ุงู„ุญู†ููŠุฉู ูˆุงู„ุญู†ุงุจู„ุฉุŒ ูู†ุตูˆุตู ูƒูุชูุจูู‡ูู… ุงู„ู…ุนุชู…ุฏุฉู ุชุตุฑู‘ูุญู ุจุฃู†ู‡: ุฅู† ุดูุฑูุทูŽ ุงู„ุนู…ู„ู ุนู„ู‰ ุฃุญุฏ ุงู„ุดุฑูƒุงุก ุฃูˆ ุฃูƒุซุฑุ› ุตุญู‘ูŽ ุฃู† ูŠูุดู’ุฑูŽุทูŽ ู„ู„ุนุงู…ู„ ุฒูŠุงุฏุฉูŒ ููŠ ุงู„ุฑุจุญ ุฃูƒุซุฑ ู…ู…ุง ูŠุณุชุญู‚ู‡ ุจุงู„ู†ุธุฑ ุฅู„ู‰ ู‚ูŽุฏู’ุฑู ู…ุงู„ู‡. ูˆุงู†ุธุฑ ููŠ ุฐู„ูƒ “ุญุงุดูŠุฉ” ุงู„ุนู„ุงู…ุฉ ุงุจู† ุนุงุจุฏูŠู† ุงู„ุญู†ููŠุŒ ูˆ”ูƒุดุงู ุงู„ู‚ู†ุงุน” ู„ู„ุนู„ุงู…ุฉ ุงู„ุจูู‡ููˆุชูŠ ุงู„ุญู†ุจู„ูŠ.

ูˆูƒู„ุงู…ู ุงู„ูู‚ู‡ุงุก ู…ู†ุง ูˆู…ู† ุบูŠุฑู†ุง ููŠ ุญูƒู… ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู…ุณุฃู„ุฉ ุงุฌุชู‡ุงุฏูŠู‘ูŒุŒ ูู„ูŠุณ ููŠ ุงู„ู…ุณุฃู„ุฉ ู†ุตู‘ูŒ ูˆู„ุง ุฅุฌู…ุงุนุŒ ูˆุฅู†ู…ุง ุฃุนู…ู„ูˆุง ููŠู‡ุง ุงู„ู†ุธุฑูŽ ูˆุงู„ู‚ูŠุงุณุŒ ูˆููŠ ุงู„ู†ุตู‘ู ุงู„ู…ู†ู‚ูˆู„ ุนู† “ุงู„ู…ุบู†ูŠ” ุขู†ูุงู‹ ุฅุดุงุฑุฉูŒ ุฅู„ู‰ ุฏู„ูŠู„ ู…ุฐู‡ุจู†ุงุŒ ูˆู…ูŽู† ุฃุฑุงุฏ ุงู„ุชูˆุณุนูŽ ููŠ ุฐู„ูƒ ูุนู„ูŠู‡ ุจู…ุฑุงุฌุนุฉ “ุงู„ุญุงูˆูŠ ุงู„ูƒุจูŠุฑ” ู„ู„ุฅู…ุงู… ุงู„ู…ุงูˆุฑุฏูŠุŒ ูู‚ุฏ ุงุณุชูˆูู‰ ุฏู„ูŠู„ูŽ ุฃุฆู…ุชู†ุง ููŠ ุงู„ู…ุณุฃู„ุฉ ู…ู† ุงู„ู‚ูŠุงุณ.

ูˆุงู„ูƒู„ุงู…ู ููŠู…ุง ู…ุฑู‘ูŽ ุฅู†ู…ุง ู‡ูˆ ููŠู…ุง ูŠุณุชุญู‚ู‘ูู‡ ุงู„ุนุงู…ู„ู ุจุงู„ุนู‚ุฏ ุฃูˆ ุงู„ุดุฑุทุŒ ูˆู‚ุฏ ุนู„ู…ุชูŽ ููŠู‡ ุงู„ุฎู„ุงููŽ ูˆุญูƒู…ูŽ ู…ุฐู‡ุจู†ุงุŒ ุฃู…ุง ู„ูˆ ุชุจุฑู‘ูŽุน ุงู„ุดุฑูƒุงุกู ุจุดูŠุก ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ุงู„ ู„ู„ุนุงู…ู„ ู…ู†ู‡ู… ุฃูˆ ู„ู„ุฃูƒุซุฑ ุนู…ู„ุงู‹ ููŠ ู…ู‚ุงุจู„ุฉ ุนู…ู„ู‡ุ› ุญู„ู‘ูŽ ุฐู„ูƒ ู„ูƒู†ู‡ ุบูŠุฑู ูˆุงุฌุจ ุนู„ูŠู‡ู…. ูˆูŠู…ูƒู†ู ุฃู† ูŠูƒูˆู† ุฐู„ูƒ ู„ุงุฒู…ุงู‹ ุจุงู„ู†ุฐุฑุ› ูƒุฃู† ูŠู†ุฐุฑูŽ ุงู„ุดุฑูŠูƒู ู„ุดุฑูŠูƒู‡ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ูŠุนู…ู„ ูˆุญุฏู‡ ุฃูˆ ุฃูƒุซุฑ ู…ู†ู‡ ุจุดูŠุก ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ุงู„ ู…ุนู„ู‚ุงู‹ ุนู„ู‰ ุฅู†ุฌุงุฒู‡ ุงู„ุนู…ู„ุŒ ูƒุฃู† ูŠู‚ูˆู„: ุฅู† ุฃุฏู‘ูŽูŠู’ุชูŽ ูƒุฐุง ูˆูƒุฐุง ู…ู† ุงู„ุฃุนู…ุงู„ ูู„ูู„ู‘ูŽู‡ู ุนู„ูŠู‘ูŽ ุฃู† ุฃุนุทูŠูƒ ูƒุฐุง ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ุงู„. ูุฅุฐุง ุฃุฏู‰ ุงู„ุดุฑูŠูƒู ุงู„ุนุงู…ู„ู ุงู„ุนู…ู„ูŽ ุงู„ู…ุนูŠู‘ูŽู†ูŽ ููŠ ุงู„ู†ุฐุฑ ุงุณุชุญู‚ู‘ูŽ ุงู„ู…ู†ุฐูˆุฑูŽ ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ุงู„ุŒ ููŠุฌุจ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ู†ุงุฐุฑ ุฃุฏุงุกูู‡ ุฅู„ูŠู‡ุŒ ูˆุงู„ู„ู‡ ุชุนุงู„ู‰ ุฃุนู„ู… ูˆุฃุญูƒู….

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