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Is that a Muslim can believe in predestination, if so why judge Muslims?

Answered according to Hanafi Fiqh by Tafseer Raheemi

Question:

est ce que un musulman peut croire à la predestination si oui pourquoi juger les musulmans .NB (je suis sénégalais et musulman pratiquant)

Translation:

Is that a Muslim can believe in predestination, if so why judge Muslims? (NB I am a practicing Muslim and Senegalese)


Answer:

The first thing to bear in mind is that there are some issues which we should abstain from as much as possible. The issue of predestination is among these. Rasulullah Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam has told us to stay away from discussing predestination:

من تكلم في شيء من القدر سئل عنه يوم القيامة ومن لم يتكلم فيه لم يسأل عنه

“Whoever speaks about predestination will be asked about it on the Day of Judgement. Whoever doesn’t speak about it won’t be asked.”

Nevertheless, due to our minds remaining restless on the topic, the important thing to know is that both free-will and predestination exist. Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala knows everything we have done in the past, everything we are doing in the present and everything we will do in the future. Yet, Allah has given us the choice to do right or wrong. If there was no choice in the matter, Allah would not punish or judge us.

لَا يُكَلِّفُ اللَّهُ نَفْسًا إِلَّا وُسْعَهَا لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَعَلَيْهَا مَا اكْتَسَبَتْ | البقرة 286

We must believe in predestination, yet we cannot assume that our actions are entirely bound by it. Rasulullah Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam instructed us to keep practicing:

عَنْ أَبِى عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ السُّلَمِىِّ عَنْ عَلِىٍّ – رضى الله عنه – قَالَ كَانَ النَّبِىُّ – صلى الله عليه وسلم – فِى جَنَازَةٍ فَأَخَذَ شَيْئًا فَجَعَلَ يَنْكُتُ بِهِ الأَرْضَ فَقَالَ « مَا مِنْكُمْ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلاَّ وَقَدْ كُتِبَ مَقْعَدُهُ مِنَ النَّارِ وَمَقْعَدُهُ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ » . قَالُوا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَفَلاَ نَتَّكِلُ عَلَى كِتَابِنَا وَنَدَعُ الْعَمَلَ قَالَ « اعْمَلُوا فَكُلٌّ مُيَسَّرٌ لِمَا خُلِقَ لَهُ ، أَمَّا مَنْ كَانَ مِنْ أَهْلِ السَّعَادَةِ فَيُيَسَّرُ لِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ السَّعَادَةِ ، وَأَمَّا مَنْ كَانَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الشَّقَاءِ فَيُيَسَّرُ لِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ الشَّقَاوَةِ » . ثُمَّ قَرَأَ ( فَأَمَّا مَنْ أَعْطَى وَاتَّقَى * وَصَدَّقَ بِالْحُسْنَى ) الآيَةَ | بخارى – كتاب التفسير – باب قوله فَسَنُيَسِّرُهُ لِلْعُسْرَى – ص738 ج2 – قديمى كتب خانه

Rasulullah Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam said: “Everyone’s abode (for Jannat or Jahannam) has been written.”

The Sahabah asked: “Shouldn’t we then rely on fate and leave all practices?”

Rasulullah Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam replied: “Practise! Everyone is facilitated for what he has been created.”

We will be rewarded for our good deeds through Allah’s mercy and reprimanded for our bad deeds through his justice. However, if, after a lifetime of sinning, a person decides to become obedient to Allah and tries extremely hard in it, then Allah through his infinite mercy and power will grant him the ability to come on the righteous path. If, on the other hand, a person decides to disobey Allah after following his every command, then Allah through his might and justice can open the path of disobedience for him.

Some scholars differentiate predestination into two types.

  1. Taqdeer-e-Mubram – This is when it is written that so and so a thing will happen at a certain time and place. There are no changes to it.
  2. Taqdeer-e-Mu’allaq – Sometimes a decision can determine the outcome of a certain event. For example, if a person goes right then action A will take place. If he goes left, then action B will occur. If he chooses to do neither, then action C will happen. This type shows that a person has a choice, yet his actions have consequences that are predetermined. This is deduced from the Hadith:
    لاَ يَرُدُّ الْقَضَاءَ إِلاَّ الدُّعَاءُ | الترمذى – كتاب القدر – باب مَا جَاءَ لاَ يَرُدُّ الْقَدَرَ إِلاَّ الدُّعَاءُ

    However, even this has been foreseen by Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala. He knew that the person would make dua due to which destiny would change.

From Allah’s point of view everything created is under his power and has a destiny, including human beings. From our point of view, we have the choice to make decisions on a daily basis. This can be seen from the following ayah:

وَمَا تَشَاءُونَ إِلَّا أَنْ يَشَاءَ اللَّهُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا | سورة الدهر:30

Thus, we must always pray to Allah that he gives us success in the hereafter and that he includes us with those destined to go to Jannah. May Allah always be pleased with us all and may He shower his mercy upon us for all eternity. Ameen.

This answer was collected from Tafseer-Raheemi.com the official website of Sheikh Abdul Raheem Limbada (Hafizahullah) of UK.

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