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End of Fajr and Maghrib Times

Answered according to Hanafi Fiqh by Qibla.com

Answered by Shaykh Ilyas Patel

Lets say fajr is at 5 am, and sunrise is at 6:16 am, at what time can we last pray Fajr?

Answer:
In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

The last time for  Fajr Prayer

One can pray as long the time does not expire; if one starts to pray at 6:10 and finishes before 6:16am, his salat will be valid. In other words, as long as one COMPLETES the prayer before its expiry, it would be permissible to pray. However, if you are still praying when fajr time ends, your prayer is invalidated. This is specific to fajr, though it is sinful to delay other prayers in this manner.

When does Maghrib Time End?
——————————————————————————–
2) Maghrib is at 8 pm, how long do we have until the prayer ends?

The time for Isha according to Imam Abu Hanifa starts when the whiteness (al shafaqu’l abyad ) on the western horizon disappears after the redness (al shafaqu’l ahmar ) and complete darkness occurs.

The length of time span for this phenomenon keeps changing everyday. The shortest is in December and longest in June/July. There have been widespread difference of opinion about when does this whiteness (al shafaqu’l abyad )on the western horizon disappear and Isha time start.

Some of the scholars say the following opinion:
“The best effort is to do mushahada –witnessing the phenomenon by our own naked eyes. But it is very difficult, especially in the U.K. and Ireland. But still the effort should be made to view this phenomenon on clear days and from seashore look into the open sea, the phenomenon would be clearly visible. When you go to view the phenomenon, note down the length of time it took after sunset, because exactly the same length of time before sunrise you will view subh sadiq-true dawn-for this phenomenon nautical twilight 12°-15°depression to of sun is used. During summer months, the time span after sunset and before sunrise is quite long. In this situation we should follow the opinion of Sahibayn (Imam Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad) as their opinion is that Isha can be performed after the disappearance of redness (al shafaqu’l ahmar). This phenomenon is also shortest in winter and longest in summer BUT not more than 54 minutes in summer.

So we can follow the ruling in summer by allowing just 1 hour after sunset. For this the civil twilight 6° depression of sun is used. The civil twilight as its name suggests is a guide for fixing up lighting up times etc for civil purposes which is generally 30 minutes after sunset.
If you study the civil twilight chart the length of time between winter into summer is quite different.

The following are some examples of end of civilian twilight (al shafaqu’l Ahmar).

The following are some examples of end of civilian twilight (al shafaqu’l Ahmar).

                          Civil Twilight END                 Sunset            Length time after sunset
 
1st January       5-10 pm (17:10hrs)             4-18 pm (16:18hrs)       0.42 minutes
 
1st April           8-47 pm (20.47hrs)            8-12 pm (20:12hrs)        0.35 minutes  
1st July            10-58 pm (22:58hrs)          10-07pm (20:07hrs)       0.51 minutes
 
1st August        10-14 pm (22:14hrs)          9-31pm (21:31hrs)         0.43 minutes
 
1st September   9-01 pm (21:01hrs)            8-25pm(20:25hrs)       0.36 minutes

The above are just brief examples. It shows that on 1st July the shafaq al Ahmar (redness) or the civil twilight ends 51 minute after sunset and Isha time begins according to Sahibayn (Imam Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad).
So we can take JUST 1 HOUR after Maghrib during long summer months.’

End of research by ‘some of the scholars’.

Summary of the fatwa issued by Darul Uloom Karachi

(It can be posted to anyone interested with £1:00 for postage and photocopies.)

One should first understand two points:

First: This is a summary of the fatwa issued by Darul Uloom Karachi:
The determination of the pre-dawn and sunrise in the light of shariah is based on mushahada –viewing the phenomenon occur with one’s naked eyes-and not on astronomical calculations. As is understood from the following verse:’
Eat and drink until the white thread is clear from the black thread’
(1:187)
And authentic news, witnessing and investigation based on majority opinion are like Mushahada. ( Ghalibul-Rai )Presumption of the majority is a proof in the shariah.

Secondly: Mushahada itself is different because of the difference in climate, place and time. After understanding these two points, one should know that there is difference of opinion amongst the expert astronomers as when the time of subh sadiq -true dawn- occurs and how many degrees the sun is beneath the horizon during (subh sadiq) true dawn-. Their opinions range from 18°17°16°15° degrees, and there is no opinion lower than this. The calculations and prayer timetables in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh are based on 18° degrees long before the partition of Indo-Pak and Bangladesh. The most correct opinion is of 18° degrees, but one should remember that these principles are not final and categorical (qat’i) but are speculative (dhanni). It would be permissible if one faces difficulty in performing the Isha at its time, to perform it according to the opinion of Sahibayn and the three noble imams after the disappearance of shafaqul-ahmar (disappearance of redness on the western horizon) which is usually after 1 hr-15 minutes.

Ilyas: The calculations of WORLD MUSLIM LEAGUE of prayer times which can be found on www.Islamicfinder.org are based on 18° degrees. One can print out the timetables as well.

This answer was indexed from Qibla.com, which used to have a repository of Islamic Q&A answered by various scholars. The website is no longer in existence. It has now been transformed into a learning portal with paid Islamic course offering under the brand of Kiflayn.

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