Can an advance rental payment be retaken by the lessee for his needs?
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.
An advance rental payment cannot be retaken and nor can it be demanded by the lessee. Such a payment is transferred into the ownership of the lessor. An advanced rental payment can only be claimed in the event of a mutual cancellation prior to the initiation of a lease agreement or when the subject matter of the lease cannot be utilised on account of a deficiency from the lessor.
And Allah Ta’ālā Alone Knows Best
Mufti Faraz Adam,
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 ولا تجبُ الأجرةُ بالعقد، خلافاً للشَّافعي – رضي الله عنه -، فإنَّ الأجرةَ عنده تجبُ بنفسِ العقد، (بل بتعجيلها، فإنَّ المستأجرَ إذا عجَّلَ الأجرة، فالمُعَجَّلُ هو الأجرةُ الواجبة، بمعنى أنَّه لا يكونُ له حقُّ الاسترداد، (أو بشرطِه)، فإنَّهُ إذا شرطَ تعجيلَ الأجرةِ تجبُ معجَّلَة، (أو باستيفاءِ النَّفعِ أو التَّمكُّنِ منه، فتجبُ لدارٍ قبضتْ ولم يسكنْها، وتسقطُ بالغصبِ بقدرِ فوتِ تمكُّنِه. (شرح الوقاية)
This answer was collected from DarulFiqh.com, which is operated under the supervision of Mufti Faraz ibn Adam al-Mahmudi, the student of world renowned Mufti Ebrahim Desai (Hafizahullah).