The discussion regarding Raf-ul-yadayn (raising of the hands in Salaat before and after Ruku, etc.) is a very intensive one. There are many Muhadditheen and Mujtahideen that supported each of the opposing views.
With regards to your specific query, firstly the claim that the Hadith which mentions Raf-ul-yadayn (raising of the hands) before and after ruku only is Mutawaatir is questionable. (see I?elaa-us-sunan vol.3 pg.80)
Secondly, the Hanafi are not the sole holders of the view that Raf-ul-yadayn should not be done. Instead, thee are other eminent Mujtahideen also who are of the same view, i.e. Imaam Sufyaan al-Thawri (ra), Imaam Maalik (ra) ? according to one view ? and other Mujtahideen of Kufah, etc. This was also the practice of the illustrious khulafaa-e-raashiden; Sayyiduna Umar ibn al-Khattaab [Radhiallaahu anhu], Sayyiduna Aliy ibn Abi-Talib [Radhiallahu anhu]. (see athaarus-sunan pg.134-140; I?elaa-us-sunan vol.3 pgs.56-90; Musannaf ibn Abi Shaybah vol.1 ph.236-237)
Some of the proofs that support the view of not raising the hands, i.e. the view of Imaam Abu Hanifa [ra] and others, are the following:
1. Imaams Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, Nasaaie (RA) have recorded in their Sunans that once Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Mas?ood (Radhiallaahu Anhu) said, ?Should I not show you the Salaat of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam)?? He, then stood up and he raised his hands for the first time (for Takbir-e-Tahrima). Thereafter, he did not raise his hands. (Sunan Abu Dawud pg.109; Sunan Tirmidhi pg.58; Sunan Nasaaie vol.1 pg.158). The narration has been classified as authentic by Imaam Nimawi [ra]. (Aathaar-us-sunan pg.133)
2. Sayyiduna Barraa ibn Aazib [Radhiallaahu anhu] reported that when Rasulullah [Sallallahu alayhi Wasallam] used to commence his Salaat, he would raise his hands upto close to his ears and thereafter he would not repeat this act (of raising the hands) in Salaat.? (Tahaawi vol.1 pg.132; Sunan Abi Dawud Hadith109). Allaamah Muhammad Yusuf al-Binnori [ra] has stated that this Hadith is an authentic argument (see Ma?arifus-sunan vol.2 pg.493)
3. Saalim [Radhiallaahu anhu] reports from Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Umar [Radhiallaahu anhu] that Rasulullah [Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam] used to raise his hands at the beginning of the Salaat and he would not repeat it. (al-Khilaafiyyaat of Imaam Bayhaqi)
Among the Sahaaba [Radhiallaahu anhum] who did not practice on Raf-ul-yadayn are: Sayyiduna Umar ibn al-Khattaab [Radhiallaahu anhu], Sayyiduna Aliy [Radhiallaahu anhu], Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Mas?ood [Radhiallahu anhu], Sayyiduna Abu Hurayra [Radhiallaahu anhu], Sayyiduna Barraa ibn Aazib [Radhiallaahu anhu] Sayyiduna Ka?ab ibn Hujrah [Radhiallaahu anhu]. (Ma?arifus-sunan vol.2 pg.464)
Those Mujtahideen that are of the opinion that Raf-ul-yadayn should only be practiced at the beginning of Salaat have further argued that they accept the Ahadith that prove Raf-ul-yadayn at the various postures of Salaat to be authentic. However, those have been abrogated by other Ahaadith, the act of Raf-ul-yadayn remained the practice of Rasulullah [Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam] for a while, but later on it was gradually abandoned. (I?elaa-us-sunan vol.3 pg.79)
There are various technical proofs that substantiate this claim. We chose not to mention them for fear of causing confusion on the readers that are not fully equipped with the knowledge of Usoolul Fiqh. However, if you are interest in these finer details, kindly refer to I?elaa-us-sunan vol.3 pgs.56-90, Athaarus-sunan, Ma?arifus sunan vol.2 pg.451-501.
and Allah Ta’ala Knows Best
Moulana Muhammad ibn Moulana Haroon Abassommar
FACULTY OF SPECIALTY IN HADITH SCIENCES
checked & approved by: MUFTI EBRAHIM DESAI (FATWA DEPT.)
At the outset, we wish to point out that we subscribe to the belief of Taqleed. People have a misconception that when a person prescribes to Taqleed and he follows a Mazhab, then he is leaving the Quran and Sunnah. That is not so. The four Imams are guides due to their deep knowledge and insight of the Quran and Hadith. The following is a brief discussion on Raful Yadayn. As followers of the Hanafi Madhab, we prefer not to practice Raful Yadayn.
All the Fuqaha accept Raful Yadain at the beginning of Salaah unanimously. Raful Yadain while going into sajdah and coming up from sajdah is unanimously not permissible. Raful Yadain at the time of going into ruku and coming up from ruku is the subject of discussion.
The Shafi and Hambali Mazhabs state that there is Raful Yadain when going into ruku and when coming up from ruku. The Maliki and Hanafi mazhabs state that there is no Raful Yadain at these instances when going into ruku and when coming up from ruku.
The differences of opinion is based upon which of the two is more virtuous. According to all mazhabs, both, making Raful Yadain and leaving out Raful Yadain, is permissible. It is unfortunate that we find extremists from both, the Hanafi and Shafee Mazhabs, claiming that Raful Yadain is makrooh and wajib respectively.
The Shafee and Hambali Mazhabs substantiate the following: Salim narrates from his father Abdullah ibn Umar (RA) that Rasulullah (Salla Allahu Alayhi wa sallam) used to raise his hands in line with his shoulders when he commenced salaah and when he used to make Takbeer for Ruku and when he used to raise his head from ruku, he used to raise his hands in the same manner. He used to say ?Samia Allahu liman Hamidah Rabanna Lakal Hamd? And he should not do this (raise his hands) going into sajdah. (Bukhari vol. 1 pg. 102 Chapter of Raful Yadain fit Takbeeratul Oola Ma?a Iftitahi Sawaa?an)
Salim narrates from his father, Ibn Umar who said, I saw Rasulullah (Salla Allahu alayhi wa sa;llam) when he commenced salaah, he raised his hands in line with his shoulders and before he went into ruku and when he came up from ruku. He should not raise his two hands between the two sajdas. (Muslim vol. 1 pg. 168 Chater Istihbab Rafil Yadain Hadhwal Mankibaihi Ma?a Takbeeratil Ihraam wa Ruku?in wa Fir rafi? minar Ruku?I wa innahu la yafaluhu izha rafaa mina sujoodi)
The Hanafi and Maliki Mazhabs substantiate with the following: Alqama narrates that Abdullah bin Masood said, Should I not show you the salaah of Rasulullah (Salaa Allahu alayhi wa sallam). Then he performed and he did not raise his hands except the first time (at Takbeer Oola). This Hadith is absolutely clear and Sahih. (Tirmidhi vol. 1 pg. 58)
In this Hadith the reliability of Asim bin Kulaib is brought to question. Asim bin Kulaib is a narrator of Muslim and he is reliable. This Hadith has also been narrated from another chain of narrators, thus consolidating the hadith.
2) Barah ibn Azib (RA) narrates that when Nabi (Salla Allahu alayhi wa saalam), used to commence salah he used to raise his hands close to his ears then he should not repeat it (Raful Yadain). (Abu Dawood vol. 1 pg. 109)
Abu Dawood has said that this hadith is not authentic. It should be born in mind that Abu Dawood has narrated this Hadith with three different chains of narrators. The narrator upon whom the objection is raised is Muhamad ibn Abdur Rahman ibn Abi Lailah. He is a weak narrator. With regards to the other two chains of this Hadith, Imam Abu Dawood has not mentioned anything. According to the principles that Abu Dawood has set down in his book is whenever he does not mention anything regarding a Hadith then it will sound and authentic.
3) Abdullah ibn Abbas (RA) narrates that Nabi (Salla Allahu alayhi wa sallam) used to raise his hands in seven places, at the beginning of salah, when making Istiqbal of the Ka?ba, at Safa and Marwa, during Wuqoof (Arafah & Muzdalifah), and at Hajrah Aswad. (Majmauz Zawaid vol. 2 pg. 103)
The two Ahadith of Ibn Umar (RA) mentioned in the beginning of this article substantiating the claim for Raful Yadain are Sahih. It has a very strong chain of narrators. In spite of this the Hanafi mazhab does not give preference to this narration due to some contradictions.
ibn Umar (RA) narrates that Raful Yadain takes place only at the beginning of Salaah. (Mudawinatul Kubra vol. 1 pg. 71)
Imam Malik (RA) has mentioned in his Muwatta from ibn Umar (RA) that Rasulullah (Sallah Allahu alayhi wa sallam) used to raise his two hands in line with his shoulders when beginning Salaah and when he used to raise his head from Ruku he used to raise his hands in a similar manner. (Muwatta Imam Malik pg. 59 Iftitahus Salaah)
In the six most authentic books of Hadith, the narrations of ibn Umar (RA) have been mentioned in which Raful Yadain has been mentioned at the time of Takbeer Oola, Ruku and coming up from Ruku.
Raful Yadain occurred in four places, in the beginning of salaah, going into Ruku, coming up from Ruku and when getting up from the Qaidah Oola. (Babur Raful Yadain iza Qaama minar Rakataini vol. 1 pg. 102)
ibn Umar narrates that there ids Raful yadayn at the time of going into Sajdah. (Juz Raful Yadain)
These are some of the contradictions and inconsistencies of the narrations of Abdullah ibn Umar; it is therefore better to leave out Raful Yadain.
Furthermore, the narration of leaving out Raful Yadain is more in accordance with the Holy Quran. The Holy Quran mentions, ?Stand before Allah with a devout frame of mind (2:238). This verse advises that a person stands before Allah with total concentration and that a person makes the least amount of movements so that his concentration does not waiver.
The narration of ibn Masood (RA) has no inconsistencies and nowhere has it been narrated that he practiced against what has been narrated from him, as is the case in the narrations of ibn Umar (RA).
Many senior Sahaaba should not make Raful Yadayn. In Sharhul Maanil Aathar (Tahawi), it is narrated from Aswad (RA) that I have seen Umar (RA) raising his hands in the first Takbeer and then he did not repeat thereafter. It is also mentioned that Ali (RA) used to raise his hands in the first Takbeer of salaah and thereafter not raise his hands. In the same manner, it is narrated from Ibrahim that he said that Abdullah ibn Masood (RA) would not raise his hands for anything in Salah except in the beginning of salaah. (Babut Takbeer lir Ruku?I wat Takbeer lis Sujood war Raf minar Ruku hal ma?a zalika rafun am laa vol. 1 pg. 164)
Umar, Ali, Abdullah ibn Massood (RA) were the Fuqahaa of the Sahabah who, with out a doubt, had the most understanding of Din and these illustrious companions of Rasulullah (Salla Allahu alayhi wa sallam) left out the practice of Raful Yadain. Many of the other illustrious companions as well as Tabi?een used to leave out the practice of Raful Yadain.
Nabi (Salla Allahu alayhi wa sallam) has mentioned that those who are adults and those who have understanding of deen should be close to me. Who would know better about the Salaah of Rasulullah (Salla Allahu alayhi wa sallam) that these senior Sahabah?
The two great seats of knowledge in the Islamic world, Madinah Munawwarah and Kufa, practiced upon leaving out Raful Yadain. In Bidayatul Mujtahid, Allamah Rashid (RA) has written that Imam Malik (RA) had chosen to leave out Raful Yadain when he saw that the practice of the people of Madinah was to leave out the practice of Raful Yadain.
The people of Kufa also did not practice upon Raful Yadain. Mohammad bin Nasr Marwazi Shafi had written that no city was as unanimous on leaving out Raful Yadain as the people of Kufa. Hence, when these two great seats of knowledge did not practice upon this, Tawatur Amali is also established.
Once in Makka Mukarrama, Imam Abu Hanifa (RA) and Imam Awzaai, two illustrious Ulama met and discussed Raful Yadain. Imam Awzaai mentioned to Imam Abu Hanifa, what is wrong with the people of Kufa that they do not raise their hands in Salaah at the time of Ruku and at the time of coming up from Ruku? Imam Abu Hanifa (RA) answered that there is nothing authentic from Rasulullah (Salla Allahu alayhi wa sallam) regarding Raful Yadain. Upon this Imam Awzaai (RA) countered that Zuhri has narrated to me on the authority of Salim and he on the authority of his father (Ibn Umar) that Nabi (Salla Allahu alayhi wa sallam) used to raise his hands when he commenced Salaah and at the time of Ruku and at the time of coming up from Ruku. Upon this , Imam Abu Hanifa (RA) countered that Hammad (RA) narrated on the authority of Ibrahim, he on the authority of Alqama and he on the authority of Ibn Massood that Nabi (Salla Allahu alayhi wa sallam) did not raise his hands except at the time of beginning Salaah and he should not repeat anything of this (Raful Yadain). Upon this narration, Imam Awzaai commented that I have narrated to you from the authority Zuhri from Salim from his father and you have narrated from Hammad from the authority of Ibrahim. The objection of Imam Awzaai was that his chain of narrators was more higher because in his chain of narrators right until the Sahabi there were only two mediums, Zuhri and Salim; in Imam Abu Hanifa’s (RA) chain, there were three mediums, Hammad, Ibrahim and Alqama. The narration of O?zaee should be preferred. Upon this Imam Abu Hanifa (RA) answered that Hammad was a greater Faqih (scholar) than Zuhri and that Ibrahim was a greater Faqih than Salim and that Alqama was not less in knowledge and understanding than Ibn Umar, although Ibn Umar (RA) had the companionship and virtue. Upon this Imam O?zaee kept quiet. Imam Sarakhsi and Sheikh Ibn Humam (RA), after narrating this incident have written that Imam Abu Hanifa (RA) had preferred his narration because of the understanding (faqaahat) of the narrators. (Mabsoot of Imam Sarakhsi vol. 1 pg 14 & Fathul Qadeer of Ibn Humam vol. 1 pg. 219)
Abu Nuaim had mentioned in Hilyatul Auliya (vol. 2 pg. 98) that it is narrated from Qaboos bin Abu Dhibyan, that I asked my father the reason he used go to Alqama and leave the companions of Nabi (Salla Allahu alayhi wa sallam). Abu Dhibyan answered, I have seen the companions of Nabi (Salla Allahu alayhi wa sallam) asking Alqama and seeking Fatwas from him. The deep insight of Alqama is understood from this.
We also have to consider that Imam Abu Hanifa (RA) had given preference to that narration where the narrators had more knowledge and understanding than that narration which had fewer narrators. The point of preference is understood from what Nabi (Salla Allahu alayhi wa sallam) has mentioned that there are some narrators of knowledge who narrate their knowledge to those who have more understanding than them. The deep insight in knowledge is a quality, which is desired, and a point of preference. (Riyadhus Saliheen – Kitabul Ilm Hadith 1389 & Tirmidhi Hadith 2659 Babu Ma Ja?a fil Hathi Ala Tableeghi As Simaai vol. 2 pg. 94))
and Allah Ta’ala Knows Best
Mufti Ebrahim Desai