Answered by Shaykh Amjad Rasheed
Are my ablution and prayer valid if a small drop of fluid exits from the private parts when I stand up to make ablution or perform the prayer? This usually happens early in the morning when I pray fajr, and after several minutes of having urinated. (I wait a long time to make sure that the last drop has come out, but it is no use.)
When something exits from either of the private parts, even if it is a small amount, it nullifies the ablution. It follows that the prayer is also invalidated if something exits during performance of the prayer. This is if the person is certain that something has come out. But if the person is afflicted with obsessive doubt about this, as many people are, then the ablution is not nullified, nor is the prayer. So let the questioner take note of this.
The sunna for someone going to the bathroom is for that person to free himself [from all traces of filth] by grasping his penis and gently running the fingers of the left hand from the bottom of the penis, all the way from the testicles, to the head. Then he should shake the penis or cough so that any remaining urine can exit from the urethra.
If the person does the above to no avail and something exits from their private parts whenever they want to make ablution or pray, and the substance keeps coming out for the entire time of the prayer, such that they cannot get through the prayer while remaining pure, then this person, according to the terminology of the jurisprudents, is someone with intermittent drops of urine. Such a person does the following: they purify themselves after going to the bathroom, then with no delay, they hasten to apply a protective wrapping from cotton or the like to the head of the penis to prevent the spread of filth, then they perform ablution and pray.
However, if the substance does not exit during the entire time of the prayer, then the person can take as much time as they think they can remain free [of filth], and perform ablution and pray as usual without having to apply a wrapping.
[Translated by Zaynab Ansari]