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Whats the difference between Kaffara and Qaza fasts whilst fasting

Answered as per Hanafi Fiqh by ShariahBoard.org

I would like to know when a person has to keep a qaza fasts for the fasts in Ramadan and when a person has to keep kaffara for the fasts in Ramadan as I cannot see why some people have to keep qadha and why some have to keep kaffara when reading fatwas. Could you please make this clearer. Also I would like to know the ruling on taking an injection whilst fasting , does it break the fast and if it doesn’t break the fast will taking an injection which injects food or medicine into you break the fast. Also since I became baligh truthfully I have missed/broken about 20 fasts altogether. This was due to masturbating, eating intentionally, taking an injection, poorly gargling and swallowing water in wudhu, burning agarbatti, and just not keeping a fast – no valid reason for it (although family thought I was fasting) these 20 fasts were broken/missed due to one of the above reasons. How many qadha fast do I have to keep and how many kaffara do I have to do (60 consecutive fasts) also I broke 3 Nafl fasts – do I just make qadha of them. My cousin wants to know how many qadha fasts she has to keep since she became baligh, she is 18 now (19 in a couple of months) and has not kept the qadha fasts which she missed each year due to period (not knowing she had to make qadha).

Those fast that are missed due to the excuse of some kind are to be made up all so, those fast which were never kept due to mistake or laziness ought to be made up as well.

However, if someone has broken his fast without any valid excuse than not only that he would have to make up the fast but he would have to also pay expiation. This is a principal ruling. If somebody takes an injection it would not nullify the fast but injections, which are of food material, are not allowed because it ought to be only for the medicinal or treatment purposes. Every time a person breaks the fast expiation becomes necessary on him that is fasting for 61 days continuously. 60 days are of expiation and one day is to make up. If a person feels that he is not able to do this because if he misses even one fast during this time he would have to repeat everything all over again. Due to this fear if someone can’t fast than he should feed 60 poor people for two times for every fast that was missed on purpose.

If the fast was not obligatory and a person broke it then it should be made up. For girls, fasting becomes obligatory from the start of their menses. If the girl experiences her menses during the month of Ramadan then the girls should find out how many days of Ramadan went by while she was in her menses. Based on that she should make up the fast she missed. If it happens at the age of 13 and now the girl is 18
years old than you can easily calculate as to how many fast she missed and how many she needs to make up.

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This answer was collected from Shariahboard.org. It was established under the supervision of the eminent faqih of our era, Hazrat Shah Mufti Mohammed Navalur Rahman damat barakatuhum.

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