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Recitation, Following Any Opinion You Want, & More 

Answered as per Hanafi Fiqh by Qibla.com

Answered by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani

Faraz Rabbani wrote: The opening takbir, like other recitation and invocations, has to be loud enough for one to have heard it had there been no surrounding noises.

1]What about the pronunciation? I mean when reciting inaudibly, does one have to take special care with the letter sounds such as for e.g. qaf, ayin, dad etc.? What is the minimal requirement in this? I mean when reciting inaudibly does one not need to pay attention to such rules of recitation? How many slips or errors in recitation are excused? Even when reciting quickly, knowing perhaps their maybe a possibility for error? And what is the case if one suffers from was-wasa?

In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

One should try to pronounce correctly and not be hasty in one’s recitation, for this is generally blameworthy in recitation. However, minor mistakes of tajwid are excusable, though best to avoid. Those who have waswasa should behave like Wahhabis and ignore the claims of their misgivings unless these give decisive proof.

I said: However, another opinion that is correct is that a minimally valid recitation is for one to pronounce the letters with one’s mouth, even if no sound is made. This was the position of Imam al-Karkhi (an early imam of our school), and deemed the closest to fiqhi principles by none less than Imam al-Kasani, authro of the unique jewel of a text, Bada’i` al-Sana’i`. Some major fuqaha of the 20th Century, including Imam Ashraf Ali, declared the fatwa to be on this position. Mufti Mahmoud Usmani said that many others concurred with him, because of the widespread ignorance of basic rulings such as the minimally valid recitation.

So they asked: 2]So can one abide by the opinion of Imam Abu’l-Hasan al-Karhki, even though going by what you’ve said it is not the dominant view? As a side issue can muqalids in general follow an opinion in general that isn’t the dominant view, such as for example the fatiha behind the Imam (which I think is Imam as-Shaybanis (r) opinion) in the third and forth rakat? And if not what issue is it permitted to do this? The above opinion, and forgive me for my lack of intellect, does it mean that if one were to just move the mouth without sound it would be vaild? Also what is considered the minimum and optimum in this?

Sidi, of course it is valid to follow the position of Imam al-Karkhi because great scholars of the past and our times say so. However, the least of taqwa would tell us that one should make sure to recite such that one can hear oneself. Muqallids have to follow sound opinions, as conveyed to them by reliable scholars or books that are reliable and which they are able to understand. Scholars who are at a certain level may choose to give fatwa in certain situations on other than the strongest positions of the school, subject to principles and conditions outlined in the texts that explain how fatwas are given.

It is not the opinion of Imam Muhammad that the follower may recite behind the imam in quiet prayers. Rather, the transmitted opinion of all 3 of our Imams is clearly that it is prohibitively disliked for the follower to recite anything of the Qur’an(even the Fatiha) even in the quiet prayers.

The follower starts his final salams right with the imam, though being careful to stay behind the imam. This applies to all actions of the prayer: One follows the imam right away, while being careful to stay behind him. This is the position of Imam Abu Hanifa (Allah have mercy on him), and is superior to his Companions’ position that one starts one’s salams after the imam. The difference, though, is in terms of superiority not validity. [Ibn Abidin. They asked: 3]Can the follower abide by either of the above two opinions?

“The difference, though, is in terms of superiority not validity.” It is best to follow the superior opinion.


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