As Salaamu Alaikum
I would like to find out what is meant islamically by the word sabr ( patience / perseverance ). Please include as much information as possible.
What is the validity of salaah if a letter was pronounced as another letter in salaah. Example a THA being pronounced as a THOR.
IF the Adhan was called one minute before the timing of salaah but was finished into the timing of salaah. Is your salaah valid if performed with congregation.
Wa Alaikum as Salaam,
The answer to your questions are as follows:-
The following is some information on Sabr (Patience). Allah Says in the Holy Quran:
” 0 ye who believe! Be patient and out do all others in endurance” (3:200)
The term sabr is commonly translated as patience, but this is only an approximate meaning which does not convey totally the true meaning of sabr. ‘Patience’ comes from a Latin root, meaning ‘suffering.’ – a very negative type of idea. Sabr however comes from the root sabr which means to tie, or in other words to tie down uncontrolled feelings of fear or weakness. Some equivalent English words would therefore be perseverance, fortitude, resolution, self-discipline and control. Far from being a negative moral virtue, it is an active, determined and dynamic quality which Islam encourages for all believers. It therefore requires that Muslims fight for justice and freedom against human tyranny and it also requires Muslims to be steadfast in the face of calamity.
There are six major applications of the quality, of sabr (patience and perseverance) in the life of a Muslim.
(1) First of all, the Quraan links perseverance with obedience of Allah. As the Quraan states
“Lord of the heavens and of the earth and of all that is between them; so worship Him and be constant and patient in His worship.”
(2) Perseverance in keeping away from things which are bad is enjoined on Muslims by both the Quraan and the sayings of the Prophet (S.A). The Prophet (S.A), for example said: “Paradise is surrounded by things which are trying and difficult, whereas hellfire is surrounded by things which are pleasing and glittering”.
(3) In several places, the Quraan call upon both Prophet Muhammad (8.4) and the believers to practice resolution and perseverance as a moral virtue in itself. As the Quraan says:
“Therefore be patient with constancy to the command of thy Lord and harken not the sinner or the ingrate among them”(76:24).
(4) Perseverance and patience in the face of calamity and misfortune is enjoined on the believers. As the Quraan says:”
” And bear with patience whatever befall thee for this is firmness in the conduct of affairs…” (31:17)
(5) Muslims are advised to persevere their friendships with those who are pious and good, but not with those people who are after the glitter of this life and are therefore not truly believers. As the Quraan says:
”And keep thy soul content (i. e. tie-down your souls) those who call on their Lord morning and evening seeking His pleasure.” (18:28)
(6) We are advised to practice perseverance in our faith even when good fortune befalls us. As the Quraan says:
“If we give man a taste of our mercy and then withdraw it from him, behold! He is in despair and falls into blasphemy.” (ll:9)
But if we, give him a taste of (our) favors after adversity hath touched him, he is sure to say ‘all evil has departed from me’: Behold! He falls into arrogance and pride” (11:10)
‘Except those who show patience and constancy and work righteousness; for them is forgiveness and a great rewards” (11:11)
The Prophet (S.A) himself said:
“How excellent is the case of a faithful servant, there is good for him in everything and this is not the case with anyone except him. If prosperity reaches him, he expresses gratitude to Allah and that is for him and if adversity befalls him, he endures it patiently and that is better for him.” (Muslim)
Thus, the Islamic moral virtue of sabr is a much broader term than patience.
The question will arise; why does the pious and good seem to face ‘all calamities without reward?’ To answer this, we must understand that no one is in a position to judge Allah’s ultimate wisdom. When so many things in life appear self-contradictory – for instance pious people suffering calamities, the human being is apt to forget that beyond the limited human judgement, there is a higher order of justice and wisdom which no human being is qualified to judge. The Quran indicates that it is not only the evil, and wicked people who are touched by calamity in this world. Allah ordains hardship on the believers also. Similarly, bounty is given not only to the good but also to the wicked. The Quraan explains this apparent contradiction by saying that people will not be left to just profess their belief and faith without being tested with trials and difficulties and even disaster in order to ascertain the sincerity of belief. As the Quraan says:
“And we shall surely test you with fear and hunger, and loss of wealth and lives and fruit, and give glad tidings to the patient ones’. (2:156)
Another explanation for the seemingly suffering hardship of believers was given by the Prophet (S.A) when he said that if Allah loves a person a lot, he will try him with difficulty. In addition, he said in another hadith that Allah sometimes punishes a person for his sin in this life so that on the Day of Judgement he will not face eternal punishment.
Muslims are encouraged to look upon calamity and trials as perhaps good in the long run, but this does not mean that the believer should actually go out and seek hardship. There is a difference between the person who is patient, constant and steadfast in the face of difficulty, and the person who actively seeks calamity and disaster. The Prophet (S.A) has set an example in this regard by counseling his followers, who were on their way to the battle front to defend Islam, that they should not be eager for the fight and should pray that it be averted: however, if fighting is inevitable, then they should show courage and perseverance. It is reported that the Prophet (SA) saw a very old man on pilgrimage walking but supported by his sons. When the Prophet (SAS) questioned the party he was told by the old man’s sons that their father had taken a covenant that he would endure the difficulty of walking all the way to Mecca. The Prophet (S.A) said “Allah does not need that from you “, and, ordered the man to ride in comfort.
The moral virtue of perseverance is related to several of the other moral virtues in Islam, for example it is related to:
(a) The quality of Taqwah or piety that is, those who have a Taqwah also practice sabr.
(b) Forgiveness, it is obvious that those who practice patience will also be forgiving and will not carry a grudge. Muslims are allowed the right of retaliation but the Quraan says that patience and forgiveness is better. Allah says:
“But indeed whosoever bears wrong with patience and forgives, that would truly be an exercise of courageous will and resolution in the conduct of affairs.”
(c) Gratefulness to Allah for His bounties.
(d) Trust, confidence and dependence upon Allah.
(f) Jihad (struggle) in the path of Allah.
(g) Mercy, because those who have the quality of sabr are compassionate to one another.
The benefits and rewards of sabr are many. First of all quality of patience is one of the main characteristics which distinguishes the prophets from other people. The Quran goes on to say that the believers who practice sabr will be granted forgiveness and a great reward Allah says:
“Verily the patient ones —shall have their reward without measure” (39:11)
The quality of constancy or perseverance is also a pre-requisite for spiritual leadership in Islam, and the Quraan gives glad tidings of great rewards for those who practice patience in their lives.
The-Prophet (S.A) described perseverance as a light of the believers and as-half of the faith.
Islam teaches that if the following attitudes are inculcated, one’s quality of sabr will be increased:
(a) Strengthen, faith and trust in Allah, as the owner and possessor of the entire universe. He who has knowledge, wisdom and justice totally beyond our comprehension.
(b) Have the idea that Allah gave everything and so if He wills, he can take this property back.
(c) Everything that happens, has been decreed by Allah before the creation of the earth, and so, even if the whole world gathered to benefit or harm a person, it would not happen unless Allah so willed.
(d) Realize that difficulties may be an atonement for sins and so persevere through them.
(e) In all cases of difficulty, turn to Allah and pray to Him for support in the face of adversity.
2) When a letter is mispronounced in Salaah, we have to look at whether it has changed the meaning of the word pronounced or not. If it has changed it to the extent that the meaning of the new word is reprehensible, then this will invalidate the Salaah. If this did not happen, then Salaah will be valid.
3) If the Adhan was called one minute before the timing of Salaah and was finished in the proper timing for Salaah, then the Salaah will be valid.
And Allah knows best,
Mufti Waseem Khan