IslamQA

Inheritance query

Answered according to Hanafi Fiqh by DaruliftaaZambia.com

Question

Assalamualaikum,

(1) If a husband wants to give the wife more than what she is entitled to from his inheritance, can he indicate a note in his will a loan of say $100,000 that he owed his wife. In this case, will the loan be paid out first to his wife before the estate is distributed among the heirs ?

(2) When sharing out the father’s inheritance, there was an agreement between brothers as to how the estate would be shared. In doing so, one of them agreed to buy out the other brothers and pay them off. However, the brother has no finished paying off the money and the title of the house is still their late father’s name. Does this mean that the estate of the late father has been sorted out even though the property remains in his name or should the brother change the title to their names till the money is paid off?

(3) If the wife paid for some items in the house. Should she make a list of what she paid for and the husband should sign off so these items don’t form part of the husband’s estate as she paid for them?

Shukran

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

  • A person is entitled to gift whomsoever he/she wishes in his/her lifetime. Once a person passes away, each and every item of whatever he/she leaves behind, forms part of the estate.

Furthermore, a bequest can be made only for a non-heir. The wife of the deceased is an heir; hence it is not permissible to bequest for the wife. [1]

This is understood from the following Hadeeth:


عَنْ شُرَحْبِيلَ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ، سَمِعْتُ أَبَا أُمَامَةَ، سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏ “‏ إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ أَعْطَى كُلَّ ذِي حَقٍّ حَقَّهُ فَلاَ وَصِيَّةَ لِوَارِثٍ ‏

Translation: Abu Hurayrah narrates: I heard Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) saying:

Allah has apportioned for everyone who has a right what is due to him, and no bequest must be made to an heir.

(Sunan Abu-Dawood)

If the husband wishes to grant an extra portion to an heir, he may gift the money to the wife in his lifetime. In this instance, the laws of gifting – such as physical transfer of the gift – will be considered. If the husband requires the money, he may than loan it from the wife. Alternatively, the husband may also purchase an item from his wife on credit – even if an inflated price is agreed, and accept the responsibility of the debt which can be paid from the estate after his demise.

 

  • It is permissible for an heir to purchase the share of the other heirs and become the owner of the item. [2]

The outstanding amount will be a debt to be paid to the remaining heirs and the estate of the father will be considered to have been wound up and distributed. It will not be necessary to change the title of the property to the remaining heirs until complete payment is received. However, it is advisable to document and record all the transactions to avoid dispute in the future.

Documenting and recording transactions is the injunction of Shariah. The importance of recording transactions is understood from the Qur’aan and Ahaadeeth.

Allah Ta’ala has mentioned in the longest verse of the Qur’aan:

يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ إِذَا تَدَايَنتُم بِدَيْنٍ إِلَى أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى فَاكْتُبُوهُ

When you enter into a credit transaction, then you should write it down.

Likewise, Nabi (ﷺ) also documented a transaction he undertook with a Sahabi.

This is understood from the following Hadeeth:

قَالَ لِي الْعَدَّاءُ بْنُ خَالِدِ بْنِ هَوْذَةَ أَلاَ أُقْرِئُكَ كِتَابًا كَتَبَهُ لِي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ قُلْتُ بَلَى ‏.‏ فَأَخْرَجَ لِي كِتَابًا ‏ “‏ هَذَا مَا اشْتَرَى الْعَدَّاءُ بْنُ خَالِدِ بْنِ هَوْذَةَ مِنْ مُحَمَّدٍ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم اشْتَرَى مِنْهُ عَبْدًا أَوْ أَمَةً لاَ دَاءَ وَلاَ غَائِلَةَ وَلاَ خِبْثَةَ بَيْعَ الْمُسْلِمِ الْمُسْلِمَ ‏

Translation: ‘Al-‘Adda’ bin Khalid bin Hawdhah said to me: “Shall I not read to you a letter that was written for me from the Messenger of Allah ()?’” He said: ‘I said: “Of course.” So he took out a letter for me: “This is what Al-‘Adda’ bin Khalid bin Hawdhah purchased from Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah (): He purchased from him a slave’ – or – ‘a female slave, having no ailments, nor being a runaway, nor having any malicious behaviour. Sold by a Muslim to a Muslim.’

(Jaami Al-Tirmidhy, Kitaab Al-Buyoo)

  • According to Shariah, the marriage contract does not lead to an automatic partnership between the spouses by virtue of marriage. A partnership is enacted through a separate and independent partnership contract.

The items paid for by the wife will belong to her. Those items will not form part of the husband’s estate. It is advisable to list down all the items belonging to the wife to avoid disputes in the future.

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

 

Mufti Muhammad I.V Patel

Checked and Approved by
Mufti Nabeel Valli

Darul Iftaa Mahmudiyyah

Lusaka, Zambia

www.daruliftaazambia.com

[1]

بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع (7/ 337)

(ومنها) أن لا يكون وارث الموصي وقت موت الموصي، فإن كان لا تصح الوصية لما روي عن أبي قلابة – رضي الله عنه – عن رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم – أنه قال «إن الله تبارك وتعالى أعطى كل ذي حق حقه، فلا وصية لوارث» وفي هذا حكاية، وهي ما حكي أن سليمان بن الأعمش – رحمه الله تعالى – كان مريضا، فعاده أبو حنيفة – رضي الله عنه – فوجده يوصي لابنيه، فقال أبو حنيفة: – رضي الله عنه – إن هذا لا يجوز، فقال: ولم يا أبا حنيفة فقال: لأنك رويت لنا أن رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم – قال: «لا وصية لوارث» فقال سليمان – رحمه الله -: يا معشر الفقهاء أنتم الأطباء ونحن الصيادلة

فقد نفى الشارع – عليه الصلاة والسلام – أن يكون لوارث وصية نصا

 

[2]

العناية شرح الهداية (8/ 439)

[فَصْلٌ فِي التَّخَارُجِ]

التَّخَارُجُ تَفَاعُلٌ مِنْ الْخُرُوجِ، وَهُوَ أَنْ يَصْطَلِحَ الْوَرَثَةُ عَلَى إخْرَاجِ بَعْضِهِمْ مِنْ الْمِيرَاثِ بِمَالٍ مَعْلُومٍ

وَوَجْهُ تَأْخِيرِهِ قِلَّةُ وُقُوعِهِ، فَإِنَّهُ قَلَّمَا يَرْضَى أَحَدٌ بِأَنْ يَخْرُجَ مِنْ الْبَيْنِ بِغَيْرِ اسْتِيفَاءِ حَقِّهِ

وَسَبَبُهُ طَلَبُ الْخَارِجِ مِنْ الْوَرَثَةِ ذَلِكَ عِنْدَ رِضَا غَيْرِهِ بِهِ، وَلَهُ شُرُوطٌ تُذْكَرُ فِي أَثْنَاءِ الْكَلَامِ، وَتَصْوِيرُ الْمَسْأَلَةِ ذَكَرْنَاهُ فِي مُخْتَصَرِ الضَّوْءِ وَالرِّسَالَةِ

قَالَ (وَإِذَا كَانَتْ التَّرِكَةُ بَيْنَ وَرَثَةٍ فَأَخْرَجُوا أَحَدَهُمْ إلَخْ) وَإِذَا كَانَتْ التَّرِكَةُ بَيْنَ وَرَثَةٍ فَأَخْرَجُوا أَحَدَهُمْ مِنْهَا بِمَالٍ أَعْطَوْهُ إيَّاهُ حَالَ كَوْنِ التَّرِكَةِ عَقَارًا أَوْ عُرُوضًا جَازَ قَلَّ مَا أَعْطَوْهُ أَوْ كَثُرَ، وَقَيَّدَ بِذَلِكَ لِأَنَّهَا لَوْ كَانَتْ مِنْ النُّقُودِ كَانَ هُنَاكَ شَرْطٌ سَنَذْكُرُهُ، وَهَذَا لِأَنَّهُ أَمْكَنَ تَصْحِيحُهُ بَيْعًا وَالْبَيْعُ يَصِحُّ بِالْقَلِيلِ وَالْكَثِيرِ مِنْ الثَّمَنِ، وَلَمْ يَصِحَّ جَعْلُهُ إبْرَاءً لِأَنَّ الْإِبْرَاءَ مِنْ الْأَعْيَانِ غَيْرِ الْمَضْمُونَةِ لَا يَصِحُّ

 

This answer was collected from Daruliftaazambia.com, which serves as a gateway to Darul Iftaa Mahmudiyyah – Lusaka, Zambia.

Find more answers indexed from: DaruliftaaZambia.com
Read more answers with similar topics: