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In 2005 i was going out with my girlfreind. She fell pregnant in July 2005…Now we are married..We know that we already done wrong and that getting married doesnt make things right but do i have rights over that child and does he have rights over me?

Answered according to Hanafi Fiqh by Askimam.org

I am a muslim man in my early 20’s. In 2005 i was going out with my girlfreind. She fell pregnant in July 2005 and we only found out in Sepember 2005 a day before the Ramdaan. We were willing to get married but had to wait until after the Ramdaan. We got married in November 2005, when she was four months. Tell me, We know that we already done wrong and that getting married doesnt make things right but do i have rights over that child and does he have rights over me? When my son grows up will he be able to inherate from me, will he be able to be a leader in salaat, will he be able yo learn hafiz or become a teacher if his heart so desires, will he be branned as a bastard child and all his good deeds be of no use? Please give me guidence as people are telling us all sorts of things. As for myself, i make touba every single day since then and will continue to do so until i close my eyes one day. Shukr for this opportunity.

 

Answer

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

Assalaamu `alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatoh

If the child was born six or more months after the date of your nikah, he will be considered as your legitimate son in Islam. All the laws relating to a son will apply to him i.e. rights, inheritance, etc.

If the child was born before six months of the nikah elapsed, the child will be considered illegitimate and will not be considered your son in Islam. Therefore the rights of father and son will not be applicable. The child will not inherit from you and neither will you from him. However you may bequeath up to 1/3 of your estate to him. (Hindiyyah vol. 11 pg.284)

الفتاوى الهندية   – (ج 11 / ص 284)

وَإِذَا تَزَوَّجَ الرَّجُلُ امْرَأَةً فَجَاءَتْ بِالْوَلَدِ لِأَقَلَّ مِنْ سِتَّةِ أَشْهُرٍ مُنْذُ تَزَوَّجَهَا لَمْ يَثْبُتْ نَسَبُهُ ، وَإِنْ جَاءَتْ بِهِ لِسِتَّةِ أَشْهُرٍ فَصَاعِدًا يَثْبُتُ نَسَبُهُ مِنْهُ اعْتَرَفَ بِهِ الزَّوْجُ أَوْ سَكَتَ ، فَإِنْ جَحَدَ الْوِلَادَةَ تَثْبُتُ بِشَهَادَةِ امْرَأَةٍ وَاحِدَةٍ تَشْهَدُ بِالْوِلَادَةِ كَذَا فِي الْهِدَايَةِ .


Nevertheless, if your wife breastfeeds the child you will become the milk-father of the child which does give you some rights over the child in as far as the child will become a Mahram to you. (Hindiyyah vol.7 pg.489)

الفتاوى الهندية   – (ج 7 / ص 489)

يُحَرَّمُ عَلَى الرَّضِيعِ أَبَوَاهُ مِنْ الرَّضَاعِ وَأُصُولُهُمَا وَفُرُوعُهُمَا مِنْ النَّسَبِ وَالرَّضَاعِ جَمِيعًا

Finally, there is nothing that prevents the child from becoming a Hafiz or an Aalim, or even a man of integrity and piety. He can lead the Salaah if he knowledgeable in this respect. His good deeds are as acceptable in the court of Allah as any person’s good deeds are. Why should the sins of his parents make him rejected in the court of Allah, when he is innocent. Allah Ta’aala states in the Qur’an, “No person will have to carry another’s burden.” (Surah 6, verse 166). (Maraaqiyul-Falaah vol.1 pg.143 , Badaa’i vol.14 pg.320)

مراقي الفلاح – (ج 1 / ص 143)

 ( وكره إمامة العبد ) إن لم يكن عالما تقيا ( والأعمى ) لعدم اهتدائه إلى القبلة وصون ثيابه عن الدنس وإن لم يوجد أفضل منه فلا كراهة ( والأعرابي ) الجاهل أو الحضري لجاهل ( وولد الزنا ) الذي لا علم عنده ولا تقوى فلذا قيده مع ما قبله بقوله ( الجاهل ) إذ لو كان عالما تقيا لا تكره إمامته لأن الكراهة للنقائض حتى إذا كان الأعرابي أفضل من الحضري والعبد من الحر وولد الزنا من ولد الرشد والأعمى من البصير فالحكم بالضد كذا في الاختيار

بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع   – (ج 14 / ص 320)

وَتُقْبَلُ شَهَادَةُ وَلَدِ الزِّنَا كَانَ عَدْلًا لِعُمُومَاتِ الشَّهَادَةِ ؛ ؛ لِأَنَّ زِنَا الْوَالِدَيْنِ لَا يَقْدَحُ فِي عَدَالَتِهِ لِقَوْلِهِ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى { وَلَا تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ وِزْرَ أُخْرَى } وَمَا رُوِيَ عَنْهُ عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ { وَلَدُ الزِّنَا أَسْوَأُ الثَّلَاثَةِ } فَذَا فِي وَلَدٍ مُعَيَّنٍ وَاَللَّهُ تَعَالَى أَعْلَمُ .

And Allah knows best

Wassalam

Mufti Musa Salie

Mufti Ebrahim Desai
Darul Iftaa, Madrassah In’aamiyyah

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This answer was collected from Askimam.org, which is operated under the supervision of Mufti Ebrahim Desai from South Africa.

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