Which animals are permissible and not permissible to eat?   

Answered according to Shafi'i Fiqh by

Answered by Shaykh Amjad Rasheed

Which animals are permissible and not permissible to eat? 

In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

It is obvious that the number of animals that are permissible to eat is lengthy and cannot be enumerated in this answer, however, I can mention for you some criteria and examples by which the ruling may be known, as our imams mentioned. And if you have any problem with it after that, then please ask. So I say:

Animals are of three types: Land life, aquatic life which cannot live outside water, such if you were to take it out, it would die, and the third is that which lives on land and in water together.

As for the first group which is land animals, a few types are haram to eat:

First, it is impermissible to eat land animals that attack with their fangs among predatory animals, such as lions, wolves, dogs, cats, bears, monkeys, elephants, according to our imams. Also impermissible are those that attack with their claws, their nails that is, of birds such as the falcon, the eagle and others of that type.

Second, any animal that the Prophet, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him, commanded to kill is haram to eat, such as the snake, the crow and the mouse.

Third, any filthy creature such as worms, ants, bees, flies and all insects, and those that have poison [s. are impermissible to eat].

Fourth, any animal whose impermissibility to eat which has been specifically established, such as the domestic donkey.

Fifth, an animal that is born of one parent that is permissible to eat and another that is not permissible to eat is haram to eat because the impermissibility overcomes it, such as a mule born of a horse and a domestic donkey.

Sixth, any animal that the Prophet, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him, prohibited to kill such as frogs, is impermissible to eat.

So this is some clear criteria by which you should know what is haram to eat of land life. You will also know by this which animals are permissible to eat, so we say:

Any animal that does not derive strength from its fangs or claws and was not prohibited by the Prophet, may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him, to eat or kill, or one that he didn’t command about, or anything that is not a filthy animal, nor one that harms, or was not born of a parent that is permissible to eat and another that is not, then it is permissible to eat. And those are grazing livestock, such as camels, cows, goats, deer, horses, wild donkeys, which have stripes, and according to our imams, it is permissible to eat rabbit, hyenas and fox, as well as chicken, doves and birds, ducks and goose and other birds like it that don’t attack with their claws.

As for aquatic life, it is all permissible to eat, whether it looks like fish or not, except for harmful ones that they contain poison, for they are not permissible to eat.

As for what lives on land and in water, it is haram to eat them, such as the snake, the crocodile, the turtle, and the crab and others like them.

Amjad Rasheed

[Translated by Sr. Shazia Ahmad]

السؤال : ما هي الحيوانات الجائز أكلها وغير الجائزة ؟ الجواب : لا يخفى أن تعدادَ أفراد الحيوانات المأكولة من غيرها واسعٌ وطويلٌ لا يحتمله هذا الجواب ، لكن أذكر لك ضوابط وأمثلة يُعرف بها حكمُ غيرها كما ذكرها أئمتنا ، وما أشكل عليك بعد ذلك فلتسألْ عنه فأقول : الحيوان ثالثة أنواع : حيوان البر ، وحيوان البحر وهو ما لا عيش له إلا في البحر فإن أخرج منه مات ، والنوع الثالث ما يعيش في البر والبحر معاً . أما النوع الأول وهو حيوانُ البر فما يحرم منه أنواع : أولاً : يحرم من حيوان البر ما يعدو بنابه من السباع كالأسد والذئب والكلب والهرّ والدُّب والقرد والفيل عند أئمتنا ، أو كان يعدو بمخلبه أي ظُفره من الطير كالصقر والنسر ونحوهما . ثانياً : كلُّ ما أمر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بقتله يحرم أكلُه وذلك كالحية والغراب والفأرة . ثالثاً : المستخبثاتُ من الحيوانات كالدود والنمل والنحل والذباب وسائر الحشرات ، وذوات السموم . رابعاً : ما ثبت النهيُ عن أكله بخصوصه كالحمار الأهلي . خامساً : المتولدُ بين مأكول وغير مأكول يحرم أكله كذلك تغليباً للحرمة وذلك كالبغل المتولد بين الفرس والحمار الأهلي . سادساً : كلُّ ما نهى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم عن قتله كالضفدع يحرم أكله فهذه ضوابطُ واضحةٌ تَعْلَمُ بها ما يحرم أكلُه من حيوان البر ، ومنها أيضاً يُعلمُ ضابطُ الحيوان الذي يحل أكله فنقول : كلُّ ما لا يتقوى بنابه ولا مخلبه ولم ينه النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم عن أكله أو قتله ولا أمر به ولا هو مما يُستخبث أو يضرُّ ولم يتولد بين مأكول وغيره ، فهو حيوانٌ مأكولٌ ، وذلك كالأنعام وهي الإبلُ والبقر والغنم ، والغزال والخيل والحمار الوحشي وهو ما كان فيه خطوطٌ ، ومما يحل عند أئمتنا الأرنبُ والضبعُ والثعلب ، وكذلك الدجاجُ والحمام والعصافير والبط والإوز ونحوها من الطيور التي لا تعدو بمخلبها . وأما حيوانُ البحر فكلُه حلالُ أكلُه سواء ما كان منه على صورة السمك أو لا ، إلا ما يضرُّ منه كذوات السموم فيحرم أكله . وأما ما له عيشٌ في البر والبحر فيحرُم أكلُه وذلك كحية وتمساح وسلحفاة وسرطان ونحوهما .



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