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Masturbation

Question

Thank you for answering previously, i wanted clarification if masturbation is haram or makruh, and if there is any exceptions


Answer

Please refer to the following answer for the ruling on masturbation:  https://fatwacentre.org/nikah-marriage/masturbation/?swcfpc=1 Herein, we discuss that some Hanafis have deemed masturbation as haram (unlawful), while others have deemed it makruh tahrimi (prohibitively disliked/impermissible).

Your question seeks exact clarification on which legal designation masturbation receives. In the Hanafi school, haram and makruh tahrimi are often used interchangeably. Theoretically, these two classifications differ in how they are established but on a practical level, they are the same i.e., one is not permitted to do an action which is makruh tahrimi just as haram is not permitted. This is the same difference between fard and wajib; while they differ theoretically, practically they oblige actions upon an individual.

As direct opposites of one another, it is fard to abstain from a haram act, and wajib to abstain from a makruh tahrimi act. Similarly, it is haram to miss a fard act and makruh tahrimi to miss a wajib act.

Therefore, when a Hanafi says that something is makruh or makruh tahrimi, this is not a cause for celebration as something which can be negotiated as slightly disliked, and thus flexible. This differs from how other schools may view the legal designation of makruh.

«حاشية ابن عابدين = رد المحتار ط الحلبي» (1/ 639):

مَطْلَبٌ فِي الْكَرَاهَةِ التَّحْرِيمِيَّةِ وَالتَّنْزِيهِيَّة (قَوْلُهُ هَذِهِ تَعُمُّ التَّنْزِيهِيَّةَ إلَخْ) قَالَ فِي الْبَحْرِ: وَالْمَكْرُوهُ فِي هَذَا الْبَابِ نَوْعَانِ. أَحَدُهُمَا: مَا يُكْرَهُ تَحْرِيمًا وَهُوَ الْمَحْمَلُ عِنْدَ إطْلَاقِهِمْ كَمَا فِي زَكَاةِ الْفَتْحِ، وَذَكَرَ أَنَّهُ فِي رُتْبَةِ الْوَاجِبِ لَا يَثْبُتُ إلَّا بِمَا يَثْبُتُ بِهِ الْوَاجِبُ؛ يَعْنِي بِالنَّهْيِ الظَّنِّيِّ ‌الثُّبُوتِ أَوْ الدَّلَالَةِ، فَإِنَّ الْوَاجِبَ يَثْبُتُ بِالْأَمْرِ الظَّنِّيِّ ‌الثُّبُوتِ أَوْ الدَّلَالَةِ. ثَانِيهمَا: الْمَكْرُوهُ تَنْزِيهًا، وَمَرْجِعُهُ إلَى مَا تَرْكُهُ أَوْلَى، وَكَثِيرًا مَا يُطْلِقُونَهُ كَمَا ذَكَرَهُ فِي الْحِلْيَةِ، فَحِينَئِذٍ إذَا ذَكَرُوا مَكْرُوهًا فَلَا بُدَّ مِنْ النَّظَرِ فِي دَلِيلِهِ، فَإِنْ كَانَ نَهْيًا ظَنِّيَّا يُحْكَمُ بِكَرَاهَةِ التَّحْرِيمِ إلَّا لِصَارِفٍ لِلنَّهْيِ عَنْ التَّحْرِيمِ إلَى النَّدْبِ، وَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ الدَّلِيلُ نَهْيًا بَلْ كَانَ مُفِيدًا لِلتَّرْكِ الْغَيْرِ الْجَازِمِ فَهِيَ تَنْزِيهِيَّةٌ اهـ. قُلْت: وَيُعْرَفُ أَيْضًا بِلَا دَلِيلِ نَهْيٍ خَاصٍّ، بِأَنْ تَضَمَّنَ تَرْكَ وَاجِبٍ أَوْ تَرْكَ سُنَّةٍ. فَالْأَوَّلُ ‌مَكْرُوهٌ تَحْرِيمًا، وَالثَّانِي تَنْزِيهًا؛ وَلَكِنْ تَتَفَاوَتُ التَّنْزِيهِيَّةُ فِي الشِّدَّةِ وَالْقُرْبِ مِنْ التَّحْرِيمِيَّةِ بِحَسَبِ تَأَكُّدِ السُّنَّةِ؛ فَإِنَّ مَرَاتِبَ الِاسْتِحْبَابِ مُتَفَاوِتَةٌ كَمَرَاتِبِ السُّنَّةِ وَالْوَاجِبِ وَالْفَرْضِ، فَكَذَا أَضْدَادُهَا كَمَا أَفَادَهُ فِي شَرْحِ الْمُنْيَةِ وَسَيَأْتِي فِي آخِرِ الْمَكْرُوهَاتِ تَمَامُ ذَلِكَ»

«حاشية ابن عابدين = رد المحتار ط الحلبي» (2/ 470):

«(قَوْلُهُ وَتَرْكُ الْمَحْذُورِ) قَالَ فِي شَرْحِ اللُّبَابِ فِيهِ أَنَّ الِاجْتِنَابَ عَنْ الْمُحَرَّمَاتِ فَرْضٌ وَإِنَّمَا الْوَاجِبُ هُوَ الِاجْتِنَابُ عَنْ ‌الْمَكْرُوهَاتِ التَّحْرِيمِيَّةِ كَمَا حَقَّقَهُ ابْنُ الْهُمَامِ إلَّا أَنَّ فِعْلَ الْمَحْظُورَاتِ وَتَرْكَ الْوَاجِبَاتِ لَمَّا اشْتَرَكَا فِي لُزُومِ الْجَزَاءِ أُلْحِقَتْ بِهَا فِي هَذَا الْمَعْنَى»

Answered by:
Maulana Ikramul Hoque Miah

Checked & Approved by:
Mufti Abdul Rahman Mangera
Mufti Zubair Patel

This answer was collected from FatwaCentre.org, which is overseen by Dr. Mufti Abdur-Rahman Mangera.

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