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Is it permissible to marry on credit?

Answered according to Hanafi Fiqh by DaruliftaaZambia.com

Question

Is it permissible to marry on credit?

What are the alternatives in the case you are not able to pay on time?

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

Respected Brother,

There are many practical aspects to consider before getting married. A married person will have to support his wife financially.

The husband will be obliged to discharge the Mahr amount stipulated at the time of Nikaah.

Mahr is a mandatory payment paid by the groom to the bride at the time of Nikaah. The minimum mahr amount is 10 Dirhams (31 grams of silver). [1]

The importance of giving Mahr has been emphasized in the Quraan and Ahaadeeth:

Allah says:

وَٱلۡمُحۡصَنَٰتُ مِنَ ٱلنِّسَآءِ إِلَّا مَا مَلَكَتۡ أَيۡمَٰنُكُمۡۖ كِتَٰبَ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيۡكُمۡۚ وَأُحِلَّ لَكُم مَّا وَرَآءَ ذَٰلِكُمۡ أَن تَبۡتَغُواْ بِأَمۡوَٰلِكُم مُّحۡصِنِينَ غَيۡرَ مُسَٰفِحِينَۚ فَمَا ٱسۡتَمۡتَعۡتُم بِهِۦ مِنۡهُنَّ فَـَٔاتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ فَرِيضة وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيۡكُمۡ فِيمَا تَرَٰضَيۡتُم بِهِۦ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ ٱلۡفَرِيضَةِۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا حَكِيما

Translation: “(Also prohibited are) the women already bound in marriage, except the bondwomen you come to own. It has been written by Allah for you. All (women), except these, have been permitted for you to seek (to marry) through your wealth, binding yourself, (in marriage) and not only for lust. So, to those of them whose company you have enjoyed, give their dues (dowry) as obligated. There is no sin on you in what you mutually agree upon after the (initial) agreement. Surely, Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise”


(Surah An-Nisaa, Verse 24)

 

عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم نَهَى عَنِ الشِّغَارِ، وَالشِّغَارُ أَنْ يُزَوِّجَ الرَّجُلُ ابْنَتَهُ عَلَى أَنْ يُزَوِّجَهُ الآخَرُ ابْنَتَهُ، لَيْسَ بَيْنَهُمَا صَدَاقٌ‏.‏

Translation: Nabi () forbade Ash-Shighar, which means that somebody marries his daughter to somebody else, and the latter marries his daughter to the former without paying Mahr.

(Saheeh Al-Bukhari, Kitaab Al-Nikaah)

 

عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ سَعْدٍ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ لِرَجُلٍ ‏ “‏ تَزَوَّجْ وَلَوْ بِخَاتَمٍ مِنْ حَدِيدٍ ‏”‏‏

Translation: Nabi (ﷺ) said to a man, “Marry, even with (a Mahr equal to) an iron ring.”

(Saheeh Al-Bukhari, Kitaab Al-Nikaah)

 

The husband is also responsible to provide shelter, clothing and food to his wife.

These practical aspects of marriage must be considered before deciding to marry.

Mahr is classified in to two types: [2]

(1) مهر معجل: Prompt dowry: The dowry, which is given at the time of the Nikaah or before consummating the marriage. (Without any delay)

(2) مهر موجل: Differed dowry: The dowry, which is paid over a period of time with the consent of the spouse.

It is preferable to discharge the Mahr at the time of the nikaah or before consummating the marriage as the Mahr is the sole right of the wife.

However, if one is not able to discharge the mahr at the time of the nikaah, he may differ the Mahr and pay it later with the consent of the spouse.

If for some reason one is unable to marry and face challenges, one should fast.

Nabi (ﷺ) advised:

عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، قَالَ قَالَ لَنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ “‏ يَا مَعْشَرَ الشَّبَابِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ مِنْكُمُ الْبَاءَةَ فَلْيَتَزَوَّجْ فَإِنَّهُ أَغَضُّ لِلْبَصَرِ وَأَحْصَنُ لِلْفَرْجِ وَمَنْ لَمْ يَسْتَطِعْ فَعَلَيْهِ بِالصَّوْمِ فَإِنَّهُ لَهُ وِجَاءٌ

Translation: Abdullah Ibn Masood Radhiallahu Anhu reported that Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said to us:

0h young men, those among you who can support a wife should marry, for it restrains eyes (from casting evil glances) and preserves one from immorality; but he who cannot afford it, should observe fast for it is a means of controlling the sexual desire.

(Saheeh Al-Muslim, Kitaab Al-Nikaah)

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Mufti Muhammad I.V Patel

Darul Iftaa Mahmudiyyah

Lusaka, Zambia

www.daruliftaazambia.com

[1]

بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع (2/ 275)

وَأَمَّا بَيَانُ أَدْنَى الْمِقْدَارِ الَّذِي يَصْلُحُ مَهْرًا فَأَدْنَاهُ عَشَرَةُ دَرَاهِمَ أَوْ مَا قِيمَتُهُ عَشَرَةُ دَرَاهِمَ، وَهَذَا عِنْدَنَا

 

[2]

المحيط البرهاني في الفقه النعماني (3/ 100)

ثم لا خلاف لأحد أن تأجيل المهر إذا كان إلى غاية معلومة نحو شهر أو سنة إنه صحيح، وإن كان لا إلى غاية معلومة فقد اختلف المشايخ (فيه) . بعضهم قالوا: لا يصح، وبعضهم قالوا: يصح وهو الصحيح، وهذا لأن الغاية معلومة في نفسها وهو الطلاق أو الموت، ألا ترى أن تأجيل البعض صحيح وإن لم يتفقا على غاية معلومة نحو الشهر أو السنة، وإنما يصح بالطريق الذي قلنا

 

کتاب المسائل جلد ٤ صفحہ ٤٥

جس شخص کو نکاح کا شدید تقاضا ہو اور سردست اس کے پاس مالی وسعت نہ ہو تو بہتر ہے کہ قرض لے کر نکاح کا انتظام کرے ، اور وسعت ہونے پر قرض ادا کرے ، اور جو شخص ادائیگی کی نیت سے اور پاک دامنی کے مقصد سے قرض لے کر نکاح کرے گا تو اللہ تعالیٰ کی طرف سے اس کی مدد ہوگی

This answer was collected from Daruliftaazambia.com, which serves as a gateway to Darul Iftaa Mahmudiyyah – Lusaka, Zambia.

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