1.Can you please explain to me the creation of a human according to islam. 2)Is beard mandatory

Answered according to Hanafi Fiqh by

I know that humans are from dust but how do they get into the womb? How does the dust statue fit in the womb.Can you please explain everything from dust to birth according to islam including when the soul is blown into the body.Can you also interpret and explain the ayah that explain a baby in the womans womb.(2)Is beard mandatory


1. When the Quran speaks of man’s creation from dust, it refers to the
miraculous creation of the father of all mankind, Aadam (Alayhis salaam).
This is evident from the aayah: “He (Allah) commenced the creation of man
from dust, then created his progeny from the quintessence of a despised
liquid”(Sajdah: 6) (Tafseer Ibn Kathir Vol.3 Pg 323 Darus Salaam).
It follows logically that an offshoot or offspring shares basic substances
of composition with it’s progenator, though indirectly. Therefore, it is
logical to state that human beings are created from dust, the substance of
which Aadam (a.s), the firstman, was created. Ali (Radhiallaahu Anhu) has
stated that once the embryo has grown in the womb for a period of four
months, Allah sends an angel who blows the Rooh (soul) into the body… This
is what is referred to in the Aayah: “Then We (Allah) advance it’s creation
to another stage..”(Mu’minoon)- (Ibid) Below is an excerpt from the book
‘The Quran, The Bible and Science’ by Maurice Bucaille, (a medical doctor)
that makes for some interesting reading.

2. Imaam Bukhari (Radhiallaahu Anhu) reports on the authority of Naafi’ who
narrates from Abdullah ibn Umar (Radhiallaahu Anhu) that Rasulullah
(Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) said, ‘Oppose the Mushrikeen (polytheists);
lengthen the beard and trim the moustache.’

Naafi’ further states, ‘And ibn Umar (Radhiallaahu Anhu) during Hajj or
Umrah used to hold on to his beard with his fist and cut off whatever was in
excess of that.’ (Bukhari vol.2 pg.875; Kitaab-ul-Libaas)

Through this Hadith, the verdict of the growing of the beard being Waajib
(obligatory) is deduced. That is because any explicit command of Rasulullah
(Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) will be regarded as Waajib, if there is no
apparent, clear reason/proof which states that that particular command is
for Istihbaab (preference). This is an established fact in Usool-ul-Fiqh
(principles of jurisprudence).

Moreover, the Wujoob is further emphasized by the fact that Rasulullah
(Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) did practice on this in his entire life. Know
well that Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) did not trim his beard in
his life (there is no Sahih Hadith which proves otherwise). However, because
the narrator himself (Ibn Umar (Radhiallaahu Anhu) did trim his beard upto a
fist’s length, this implies that the Wujoob of keeping a beard is upto a
fist length only.

Furthermore, such has also been reported from Sayyiduna Abu Hurayra
(Radhiallaahu Anhu) and other Taabi’een. (Tamheed of ibn Abdul-Barr and
Fathul Baari). Therefore, the meaning of our statement that you question is,
‘If any person has trimmed his beard upto less than one fist, then his beard
will not be a Shar’ee beard.’

Lastly, for your knowledge, the sayings and actions of the Sahaaba
(Radhiallaahu Anhum) is a Hujjah (proof) according to the majority of the
scholars. However, the conditions for acceptance may differ. This is also an
established principle in Usool-ul-Fiqh. Hence, the refutation of a Shar’ee
beard by the scholar you have mentioned does not hold any weight in front of
the Shar’ee proof we have mentioned.

and Allah Ta’ala Knows Best

Mufti Bilaal Cassim


The Qur’an and Modern Science.

VII. Human Reproduction.

Reminder of Certain Basic Concepts.
It is imperative to recall certain basic concepts which were unknown at the
time of the Qur’anic Revelation and the centuries that followed. Human
reproduction is effected by a series of processes which we share in common
with mammals. The starting point is the fertilization of an ovule which has
detached itself from the ovary. It takes place in the Fallopian tubes
half-way through the menstrual cycle. The fertilizing agent is the male
sperm, or more exactly, the spermatozoon, a single fertilizing cell being
all that is needed. To ensure fertilization therefore, an infinitely small
quantity of spermatic liquid containing a large number of spermatozoons
(tens of millions at a time) is required. This liquid is produced by the
testicles and temporarily stored in a system of reservoirs and canals that
finally lead into the urinary tract; other glands are situated along the
latter which contribute their own additional secretions to the sperm itself.
The implantation of the egg fertilized by this process takes place at a
precise spot in the female reproductive system: it descends into the uterus
via a Fallopian tube and lodges in the body of the uterus where it soon
literally implants itself by insertion into the thickness of the mucosa and
of the muscle, once the placenta has been formed and with the aid of the
latter. If the implantation of the fertilized egg takes place, for example,
in the Fallopian tubes instead of in the uterus, pregnancy will be
interrupted. Once the embryo begins to be observable to the naked eye, it
looks like a small mass of flesh at the centre of which the appearance of a
human being is at first indistinguishable. It grows there in progressive
stages which are very well known today; they lead to the bone structure, the
muscles, the nervous system, the circulation, and the viscerae, etc.

These notions will serve as the terms of reference against which the
statements in the Qur’an on reproduction are to be compared.?

1. Fertilization is Performed by Only a Very Small Volume of Liquid.
The Qur’an repeats this concept eleven times using the following
expression: – sura 16, verse 4: “(God) fashioned man from a small quantity
(of sperm).”

The Arabic word {nutfa} has been translated by the words ‘small quantity (of
sperm)’ because we do not have the terms that are strictly appropriate. This
word comes from a verb signifying ‘to dribble, to trickle’; it is used to
describe what remains at the bottom of a bucket that has been emptied out.
It therefore indicates a very small quantity of liquid. Here it is sperm
because the word is associated in another verse with the word sperm.

– sura 75, verse 37: “Was (man) not a small quantity of sperm which has been
poured out?” Here the Arabic word {mani} signifies sperm. Another verse
indicates that the small quantity in question is put in a ‘firmly
established lodging’ ({qarar}) which obviously means the genital organs.

– sura 23, verse 13. God is speaking: “Then We placed (man) as a small
quantity (of sperm) in a safe lodging firmly established.”

It must be added that the adjective which in this text refers to the ‘firmly
established lodging’ {makin} is, I think, hardly translatable. It expresses
the idea of a firmly established and respected place. However this may be,
it refers to the spot where man grows in the maternal organism. It is
important to stress the concept of a very small quantity of liquid needed in
the fertilization process, which is strictly in agreement with what we know
on this subject today.?

2. The Constituents of the Fertilizing Liquid.
The Qur’an describes the liquid enabling fertilization to take place in
terms which it is interesting to examine:

a) ‘sperm’, as has been stated precisely (sura 75, verse 37)
b) ‘a liquid poured out’: “Man was fashioned from a liquid poured out”
(sura 86, verse 6)
c) ‘a despised liquid’ (sura 32, verse 8 and sura 77, verse 20) The
adjective ‘despised’ ({mahin}) would, it seems, be interpreted not so much
on account of the nature of the liquid itself, as more the fact that it is
emitted through the outlet of the urinary tract, using the channels that are
employed for passing urine.
d) ‘Mixtures’ or ‘mingled liquids’ ({amsaj}): “Verily, We fashioned man from
a small quantity of mingled liquids” (sura 76, verse 2)

Many commentators, like professor Hamidullah, consider these liquids to be
the male and female agents. The same view was shared by older commentators,
who could not have had any idea of the physiology of fertilization,
especially its biological conditions in the case of the woman. They thought
that the word simply meant the unification of the two elements. Modern
authors however, like the commentator of the {Muntakab} edited by the
Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs, Cairo, have corrected this view and
note here that the ‘small quantity of sperm’ is made up of various component
parts. The commentator in the {Muntakab} does not go into detail, but in my
opinion it is a very judicious observation.

What are the components parts of sperm?
Spermatic liquid is formed by various secretions which come from the
following glands:
a) the testicles: the secretion of the male genital gland contains
spermatozoons, which are elongated cells with a long flagellum; they are
bathed in a sero-fluid liquid.
b) the seminal vesicles: these organs are reservoirs of spermatozoons and
are placed near the prostate gland; they also secrete their own liquid but
it does not contain any fertilizing agents.
c) the prostate gland: this secretes a liquid which gives the sperm its
creamy texture and characteristic odour.
d) the glands annexed to the urinary tract: Cooper’s or Mery’s glands
secrete a stringy liquid and Littre’s glands give off mucous.

These are the origins of the ‘mingled liquids’ which the Qur’an would
appear to refer to. There is, however, more to be said on this subject. When
the Qur’an talks of a fertilizing liquid composed of different components,
it also informs us that man’s progeny will be maintained by something which
may be extracted from this liquid. This is the meaning of verse 8, sura 32:
“(God) made his progeny from the quintessence of a despised liquid.”

The Arabic word, translated here by the word ‘quintessence’, is {sulala}. It
signifies ‘something which is extracted, the issue of something else, the
best part of a thing’. In whatever way it is translated, it refers to a part
of a whole. Fertilization of the egg and reproduction are produced by a cell
that is very elongated: its dimensions are measured in ten-thousandths of a
millimetre. In normal conditions [77], only one single cell among several
tens of millions produced by a man will actually penetrate the ovule; a
large number of them are left behind and never complete the journey which
leads from the vagina to the ovule, passing through the uterus and Fallopian
tubes. It is therefore an infinitesimally small part of the extract from a
liquid whose composition is highly complex which actually fulfils its

In consequence, it is difficult not to be struck by the agreement between
the text of the Qur’an and the scientific knowledge we possess today of
these phenomena.

[77] It is estimated that in one cubic centimetre of sperm there are 25
million spermatozoons with, under normal conditions, an ejaculation of
several cubic centimetres.

3. The Implantation of the Egg in the Female

Genital Organs.
3. The Implantation of the Egg in the Female Genital Organs Once the egg has
been fertilized in the Fallopian tube it descends to lodge inside the
uterus; this is called the ‘implantation of the egg’. The Qur’an names the
lodging of the fertilized egg womb:

– sura 22, verse 5: “We cause whom We [78] will to rest in the womb for an
appointed term.” The implantation of the egg in the uterus (womb) is the
result of the development of villosities, veritable elongations of the egg,
which, like roots in the soil, draw nourishment from the thickness of the
uterus necessary to the egg’s growth. These formations make the egg
literally cling to the uterus. This is a discovery of modern times. The act
of clinging is described five different times in the Qur’an.

Firstly in verses 1 and 2 of sura 96: “Read, in the name of thy Lord Who
fashioned, Who fashioned man from something which clings.” ‘Something which
clings’ is the translation of the word {‘alaq}. It is the original meaning
of the word. A meaning derived from it, ‘blood clot’, often figures in
translation; it is a mistake against which one should guard: man has never
passed through the stage of being a ‘blood clot’. The same is true for
another translation of this term, ‘adhesion’ which is equally inappropriate.
The original sense of ‘something which clings’ corresponds exactly to
today’s firmly established reality. This concept is recalled in four other
verses which describe successive transformations from the small quantity of
sperm through to the end:

– sura 22, verse 5: “We have fashioned you from … something which

– sura 23, verse 14: “We have fashioned the small quantity (of sperm) into
something which clings.”
– sura 40, verse 67: “(God) fashioned you from a small quantity (of sperm),
from something which clings.”
– sura 75, verse 37-38: “Was (man) not a small quantity of sperm which has
been poured out? After that he was something which clings; then God
fashioned him in due proportion.”

The organ which harbours the pregnancy is qualified in the Qur’an by a word
which, as we have seen, is still used in Arabic to signify the uterus. In
some suras, it is called a ‘lodging firmly established’ (sura 23, verse 13,
quoted above and sura 77, verse 21) [79].

[78] God is speaking.> [79] In another verse (sura 6, verse 98) a place of
sojourn is mentioned.
It is expressed in a term very similar to the preceding one and would also seem to signify the maternal uterus. Personally, I believe this to be the meaning of the verse, but a detailed interpretation would involve much lengthier explanation which is beyond the scope of this book. Another verse which requires extremely delicate interpretation is the following:

– sura 39, verse 6: “(God) fashions you inside the bodies of your mothers, formation after formation, in three (veils of) darkness.” ({zulumat}) Modern interpreters of the Qur’an see in this verse the three anatomical layers that protect the infant during gestation: the abdominal wall, the uterus itself, and the surroundings of the foetus (placenta, embryonic membranes, amniotic fluid). I am obliged to quote this verse for the sake of completeness; the interpretation given here does not seem to me to be disputable from an anatomical point of view but is this what the text of the Qur’an really means?

4. Evolution of the Embryo inside the Uterus.
The Qur’anic description of certain stages in the development of the embryo corresponds exactly to what we today know about it, and the Qur’an does
not contain a single statement that is open to criticism from modern science. After ‘the thing which clings’ (an expression which is well-founded, as we have seen) the Qur’an informs us that the embryo passes through the stage of ‘chewed flesh’, then osseous tissue appears and is clad in flesh (defined by a different word from the preceding which signifies ‘intact flesh’).

– sura 23, verse 14: “We fashioned the thing which clings into a chewed lump of flesh and We fashioned the chewed flesh into bones and We clothed the bones with intact flesh.” ‘Chewed flesh’ is the translation of the word {mudga}; ‘intact flesh’ is {lahm}. This distinction needs to be stressed. The embryo is initially a small mass. At a certain stage in its development, it looks to the naked
eye like chewed flesh. The bone structure develops inside this mass in what is called the mesenchyma. The bones that are formed are covered in muscle;
the word {lahm} applies to them. It is known how certain parts appear to be completely out of proportion during embryonic development with what is later to become the individual, while others remain in proportion. This is surely the meaning of the word {mukallaq} which signifies ‘shaped in proportion’ as used in verse 5, sura 22 to describe this phenomenon. “We fashioned … into something which clings … into a lump of flesh in proportion and out of proportion.”

The Qur’an also describes the appearance of the senses and the viscerae:

– sura 32, verse 9: “(God) appointed for you the sense of hearing, sight and the viscerae.” It refers to the formation of the sexual organs:

– sura 53, verses 45-46: “(God) fashioned the two of a pair, the male and the female, from a small quantity (of sperm) when it is poured out.” The formation of the sexual organs is described in two sura of the Qur’an:

– sura 35, verse 11: “God created you from dust, then from a sperm-drop, then He made you pairs (the male and female).”

– sura 75, verse 39: “And, (God) made of him a pair, the male and female.” As has already been noted, all statements in the Qur’an must be compared with today’s firmly established concepts: the agreement between them is very clear. It is however very important to compare them with the general beliefs on this subject that were held at the time of the Qur’anic Revelation in order to realize just how far people were in those days from having views on these problems similar to those expressed here in the Qur’an. There can be no doubt that they would have been unable to interpret the Revelation in the way we can today because we are helped by the data modern knowledge affords us. It was, in fact, only during the Nineteenth century that people had a slightly clearer view of this question. Throughout the Middle Ages, the most diversified doctrines originated in unfounded myths and speculations: they persisted for several centuries after this period. The most fundamental stage in the history of embryology was Harvey’s statement (1651) that “all life initially comes from an egg”. At this time however, when nascent science had nevertheless benefited greatly (for the subject in hand) from the invention of the microscope, people were still talking about the respective roles of the egg and the spermatozoon. Buffon, the great naturalist, was one of those in favour of the egg theory, but Bonnet supported the theory of the seeds being ‘packed together’: the ovaries of Eve, the mother of the human race, were supposed to have contained the seeds of all human beings, packed together one inside the other. This hypothesis came into favour in the Eighteenth century. More than a thousand years before our time, at a period when whimsical doctrines still prevailed, men had a knowledge of the Qur’an. The
statements it contains express in simple terms truths of primordial importance which man has taken centuries to discover.?

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