As salamu alaykum,
What liquids coming from the male penis are najas? What is the definition of madiy, wadiy, maniy?
wa alaykum salam wa rahmatuLlah,
Impure liquids that may exit from the male penis are:
In al-Muhadhdhab, Imam Abu Ishaq stated,
“Urine is impure…”
The legal basis for its impurity rests is the hadith related by Ibn ‘Abbas (radhi Allahu ‘anhu) in which the Nabi (salla Allahu ‘alaihe wa sallam) passed by two graves and said, “Verily they are being punished, but not for something (they considered to be) major. As for one of them, he never would rid himself of urine whilst the other used to spread slanderous rumors.” (Bukhari and Muslim)
As well as, the hadith related by Anas (radhi Allahu ‘anhu) in which a desert Arab urinated in the corner of the masjid and the Nabi (salla Allahu ‘alaihe wa sallam) ordered for a bucket of water to be brought and poured over the urine. (Bukhari and Muslim) (See: al-Majmu’ Sharh al-Muhadhdhab 2/567)
In al-Majmu’, Imam al-Nawawi explained that urine is of four types:
1. The urine of a grown up human.
2. The urine of a baby boy who was fed nothing (other than milk).
3. The urine of edible animals.
4. The urine of inedible animals.
Thereafter, al-Nawawi said,
“All types are impure according to us (i.e Shafi’s) and the majority of ‘ulama.” (Ibid)
Regarding the urine of animals specifically, al-’Imrani stated in al-Bayan,
“As for the urine and droppings of animals, they are impure according to us regardless if they come from an edible animal or an inedible animal. Ibn ‘Umar and al-Awza’i held such view, and it is the school of our Baghdadi companions.” (al-Bayan, 1/418)
“As for the urine of adult humans (# 1 above), it is impure by consensus [ijma]. Ibn Mundhir and others related it. The proof lies in the aforementioned ahadith along with the ijma. As for the urine of a baby boy who has eaten nothing except for human milk (# 2 above), it is impure according to us and all scholars without exception. al-’Abdari and the author of al-Bayan (i.e al-’Imrani) related a view from Dawud that such urine is pure. Our proof lies in the generality of the ahadith and in qiyas on the urine of adult humans. Furthermore, it has been established that the Nabi (salla Allahu ‘alaihe wa sallam) (purified) his garment from the urine of a baby boy by sprinkling water over it, so if such urine was pure, He (salla Allahu ‘alaihe wa sallam) would not have sprinkled it with water.
As for the urine of an inedible animal (# 4 above), it is impure according to Shafi’i, Malik, Abu Hanifah, Ahmad and all scholars without exception. Al-Shashi and others relate from al-Nakha’i that such urine is pure, but I do not believe such view is soundly related from him, though if it is sound then it is surely rejected based on what we have mentioned. Ibn Hazm relates in his al-Mahalla from Dawud that urine and droppings from all creatures except humans are pure, this is incorrect. As for the urine of edible animals (# 3 above) as well as their droppings, both are impure according to the Shafi’is, Imams Abu Hanifah, Abu Yusuf and others. Imams ‘Ata, al-Nakha’i, al-Zuhri, Malik, Sufyan al-Thawri, Dhafar and Ahmad (radhi Allahu ‘anhum) held that such urine and droppings are pure and the author of al-Bayan narrated a view like this from our companions. Additionally, al-Rafi’i related this view from al-Istakhri and al-Ruwyani it and they were preceded (in their view) by the Imam of Imams, Abu Bakr Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Khuzaymah from among our companions who adopted this view in his sahih and drew evidence for it. The well-known view of our school is absolute certainty over their impurity. Al-Layth bin Sa’d and Muhammad bin Hasan held that the urine of edible animals is pure but not their droppings while Abu Hanifah held that pigeon droppings are pure.” (al-Majmu, 2/567-68)
After mentioning the differences of opinion among the ‘ulama, al-Nawawi brings the proof for each side’s argument:
a) The proof of those who hold such urine to be pure:
Anas bin Malik (radhi Allahu ‘anhu) narrates that some people from the tribe of ‘Ukal or ‘Uraynah arrived at Madinah and found the climate uncongenial so the Nabi (salla Allahu ‘alaihe wa sallam) ordered them to drink the urine and milk of a camel set aside for charity. (Bukhari and Muslim)
In Sharh Sahih Muslim, Imam al-Nawawi comments on this hadith,
“And the companions of Malik and Ahmad used this hadith as a proof that the urine and droppings of an edible animal are pure. Our companions, along with others who deemed such to be impure, responded by saying that their drinking the urine was for medical treatment and this is permissible with all types of impurities save for wine and other intoxicants.”
b) The proof for those who hold such urine to be impure:
In addition to the aforementioned proofs, the Shafi’is also use Allah’s (Most High) saying, “and Allah has forbidden filthy things for them,” as a proof for urine’s impurity since the ‘Arabs consider such to be filthy. (al-Majmu, 2/568)
2. Madhy and Mady
In al-Bayan, al-’Imrani said ,
“And madhy is impure due to the fact that the Nabi (salla Allahu ‘alaihe wa sallam) ordered ‘Ali to wash it from his private part. Likewise, wady is impure because it is similar to madhy.” (al-Bayan 1/419)
The term madhy refers to: an unlustful discharge of a thin, sticky, yellowish fluid. Ibn al-Salah mentions that in the winter season it is white and thick and yellow and thin in the summer months.
The term wady refers to: a discharge of thick, cloudy white fluid that exits after urinating or carrying something heavy.
The legal basis for the impurity of madhy includes the hadith of ‘Ali (radhi Allahu ‘anhu) in which the Nabi (salla Allahu ‘alaihe wa sallam) said, “When you see madhy, you should wash it from your private part and perform ablution for the prayer.” (Abu Daud, al-Nasa’i and others) As for wady, it is deemed impure through scholarly consensus as Sheikh Ibn Hajar mentions in Tuhfah. (al-Majmu‘, 1/571-72, Tuhfat al-Muhtaj w/Hashiyat al-Sharwani, 1/297)
The view of other schools
In al-Majmu’, Imam al-Nawawi mentions that the entire ummah agreed that both madhy and wady are impure. With that said, scholars differ over how it must be washed. Al-Nawawi says in al-Majmu’ that the view of the Shafi’is and the majority of scholars is that such fluid must be washed and it does not suffice to simply sprinkle it with water while Imam Ahmad held that merely sprinkling water over it suffices. The difference of opinion here stems from the fact that aforementioned hadith of ‘Ali (radhi Allahu ‘anhu) has been related with both the words, “Perform ablution and sprinkle water over your private part,” and, “you should wash it”. Imam Ahmad utilized the first narration which appears in Sahih Muslim while we, the Shafi’is, utilized the second. The reason for this is that the wording “you should wash it” appears more frequently, as well as qiyas with other types of impurities (in that they must be washed). Furthermore, al-Nawawi says that the words of the first narration are taken to mean washing. (Ibid)
The issue of sperm
The word sperm (ar: maniyy) refers to both: male and female sexual fluid that comes from an orgasm, and it is recognized by any of the following three signs:
1. It comes out in spurts.
2. It comes out with sexual gratification
3. When dry it smells like egg whites and when wet like bread dough.
Imam al-Rafi’i divides sperm into two types;
1. The sperm of a human being
2. The sperm of other creatures
Regarding the first type, al-Rafi’i says,
“As for the sperm of a human, it is pure…”
The legal basis for its purity includes the hadith of ‘Aisha (radhi Allahu ‘anha) in which she said, “ I used to rub the maniyy away from the garment of Rasulullah (salla Allahu ‘alaihe wa sallam) and then he’d pray in it.” (Related by Imam Muslim) (al-’Aziz Sharh al-Wajiz, 1/40)
This view is correct position mentioned by al-Shafi’i in his works and the view held by the majority of the Shafi’is according to what al-Nawawi says in al-Majmu’,
“And the author of al-Bayan and some of the Khurasanis relate two views over its impurity, and from among them are those who relate two views regarding the maniyy of women. The correct view is that maniyy of both male and female are pure, whether Muslim or non-Muslim.” (al-Majmu, 1/572)
What is clear from our jurists is that maniyy is pure in and of itself. However, it can become filthified if it comes into contact with filth. Al-Nawawi discusses this important issue in al-Majmu by saying,
“If we say that the moisture of a woman’s private part is impure then her maniyy will become filthified through contact, just as when a man urinates and does not wash his penis with water before having an orgasm, such maniyy will deemed impure by contacting an impure place.” (Ibid)
The view of other schools
The view of the Shafi’i school is that maniyy is pure. This view was also held by Sa’id ibn al-Musayyib, ‘Ata, Ishaq, Abu Thawr, Daud, Ibn al-Mundhir and Ahmad according to the sounder of two narrations. Al-’Abdari and others narrate this view from Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas, Ibn ‘Umar and ‘Aishah (radhi Allahu ‘anhum).
Imams Thawri, al-Awza’i, Malik, Abu Hanifah and his companions held that maniyy is impure. Their proof lies in the hadith related by ‘Aishah (radhi Allahu ‘anha) in which it is mentioned that RasuluLlah (salla Allahu ‘alaihe wa sallam) would wash maniyy away. The Shafi’i’s proof lies in the aforementioned hadith in which the words “I used to rub it away” are mentioned, due to the fact that if it was truly impure it wouldn’t suffice to merely rub it away, rather it would be necessary to wash it just as one does with blood or madhy. In any case it remains preferable to wash it so as to avoid differences of opinion. (Ibid)
As for the second type, the sperm of creatures other than humans, al-Rafi’i says,
“When the sperm is from other than a human, one looks, if that creature is impure then it’s sperm is also impure and if that creature is pure then there are three views: The first and most evident view is that such sperm is impure due to the fact that it transforms in the body like blood and it is only pure from humans out of veneration for them. The second view is that it is pure since it is the origin of a pure animal thereby resembling the maniyy of a human. The third view is that it is pure from an edible animal and impure from an inedible animal like milk.” (al-’Aziz, 1/41)
What is apparent from the above passage of Sharh al-Wajiz is that sperm from creatures other than human beings is impure regardless if the animal is pure or impure, edible or non-edible; this is al-Rafi’i’s view. Imam al-Nawawi narrates this view in his abridgement of al-Rafi’is al-Muharrar, namely Minhaj al-Talibin, by saying,
“And like this, (i.e the impurity of wadiy and madhiy) is the sperm of creatures of than humans according to the soundest view.”
Directly after this al-Nawawi says that the soundest view (ar: al-asahh) is that sperm is pure from all creatures except dogs, pigs and their offspring. Similarly in al-Rawdhah after relating the three views above al-Nawawi says,
“I say, the soundest view according to the scholars of verification and the majority of ‘ulama is the second (i.e that sperm from creatures other than dogs, pig and their offspring is pure) and Allah knows best.” (Minhaj al-Talibin, pg.5, Rawdhat al-Talibin, pg.10)
And Allah knows best.
Answered by: Sidi Mahmud Adams