Question Regarding The Rights Parents Have Over Their Married Daughters

Answered according to Hanafi Fiqh by

Assalamualaikum Respected Muftis,

My mother and father are divorced. My mother is a doctor and lives seperately in her own home and my father is a doctor and lives seperately in his own home. Both of them work, but they are nearing retirement soon. They only have 3 daughters, of which I am the eldest. I am married with family and I live within driving distance of both my father and my mother. My youngest sister is divorced with a child and she and her child live with my mother. My middle sister is a single doctor and she lives in a different state by her own choice and works there. I would like to know what are my responsibilites according to Islam towards my mother and father? And do all of us three daughters have the same responsibilites towards our parents or are they different for each of us? Please explain in detail. 

JazakAllah Khair.

بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم

الجواب وباللہ التوفیق

There are two things related to the support and service of parents.

(1) The service of bread and maintenance:

If the parents are wealthy or have enough income to meet their needs, then no one is obliged to provide for them. If they ever become needy, their maintenance will be obligatory only on the sons, not on the daughters, because daughters are not able to earn.

But if there are no sons and the daughters are wealthy, then the daughters will be equally responsible for the expenses.

However, if there is a big difference in the financial status of each of the daughters, each one will need to serve according to each one’s capability.

(3) Physical service: When parents need physical assistance to walk, get up and sit down, then physical service of such parents is equally obligatory on sons and daughters.

However, the difference between the two is that there is no barrier for the son to serve the parents, whereas if the daughters are married, it may be difficult for them to stay with the parents for the physical service of the parents. in this case, if the daughter lives close by and her husband voluntarily allows his wife to serve her parents, then the daughter has to serve the parents.

And even if the husband does not agree, it is necessary to serve the parents as much as necessary. 

When the parents’ need is met, she can go back to the husband and take care of his rights and needs.

It should be noted that if the parents have someone else available for their support or if there is an unmarried girl or a boy, then the service is not necessary upon the married girls, but if done, it would be a blessing. 

’’قال اللہ تعالیٰ:وَصَاحِبْهُمَا فِي الدُّنْيَا مَعْرُوفًا ‘‘(اللقمان: ۱۵)

’’وقال اللہ تعالیٰ:وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا ‘‘(البقرۃ:۸۳)

’’النففۃ لأصولہ …الفقراء ولوقادرین علی الکسب …. بالسویۃ بین الابن والاخت ‘‘(ردالمحتار: ۵؍۲۸۱)

’’فالمعتبر فی ایجاب نففۃ الوالدین مجرد الفقر، قیل وھو ظاہر الروایۃ‘‘(ردالمحتار: ۵؍۲۸۰)

فإن کان الأولاد ذکورا و إناثا موسرین فنفقۃ الأبوین علیہم بالسویۃ فی أظہر الروایتین وفی الخانیۃ: وعلیہ الفتویٰ۔ (الفتاویٰ التاتارخانیۃ زکریا ۵/۴۲۵)

امرأۃ لہا أب زمن ولیس لہ من یقوم علیہ غیر البنت ویمنعہا الزوج من تعاہدہ جاز لہا أن تعصی زوجہا وتطیع أباہا، سواء کان الأب مسلما أوکافرا۔ (خلاصۃ الفتاوی ۲/ ۵۳)

ولا یمنعہا من الخروج إلی الوالدین في کل جمعۃ إن لم یقدرا علی إتیانہا علی ما اختارہ في الاختیار ولو أبوہا زمنا مثلا فاحتاجہا فعلیہا تعاہدہ ولو کافرا وإن أبی الزوج (الدرالمختار)

وفي الشامیۃ: فعلیہا تعاہدہ: أي بقدر احتیاجہ إلیہا، وہذا إذا لم یکن لہ من یقوم علیہ۔ (شامي، زکریا ۵/ ۳۲۴)

امرأۃ لہا أب زمن لیس لہ من یقوم علیہ، وزوجہا یمنعہا عن الخروج إلیہ وتعاہدہ کان لہا أن تعصی زوجہا وتطیع الوالد مؤمنا کان الوالد أو کافرا؛ لأن القیام بتعاہد الوالد فرض علیہا، فیقدم علی حق الزوج۔ (خانیۃ علی الہندیۃ ۱/ ۴۴۳، خانیۃ جدید ۱/ ۲۶۴)

افقال الحنفیۃ: لیس لہ منعہا من عیادۃ والد زمن لیس لہ من یقوم علیہ، ولا یجب علیہا طاعۃ زوجہا إن منعہا من ذلک، سواء کان الوالد مسلما أو کافرا؛ لأن القیام بخدمتہ فرض علیہا في  مثل ہذہ الحالۃ، فیقدم علی حق الزوج۔ (الموسوعۃ الفقہیۃ ۲۴/ ۵۸)

فقط واللہ اعلم بالصواب

This answer was collected from It was established under the supervision of the eminent faqih of our era, Hazrat Shah Mufti Mohammed Navalur Rahman damat barakatuhum.

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