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Questions regarding validity of salah, and kaffara for breaking oath

Answered according to Hanafi Fiqh by Askimam.org

Could you answer my questions ,my age is 15

1)I am learing about the islamic rules and I have found that some of my previous prayers were not correct,(invalid)…..like..
(A)I prayed sijda sahu witr in a masjid congregation ,following others which was not hanafi.
(B) in my home when my father becomes the imam and his shirt goes up exposing his bottom to some extent and also his back,                       (C) once after ghusal I prayed duhr when there was hardened sperm sticking  all over my body hair and I knew my prayer will be invalid but the asr time was coming up(couple of years later I repetead that salah  ) there are many other cases/events
So what should I do about these prayers and the ones I had not mentioned,Should I repeat all , or is tawbah sufficient?
2)My habits were getting a bit out of control and I made some promises In Allah ‘s name that I would not do them(some before knowing what you had to do if you broke them and some after),but I had  broken them and have decided to keep 9 fasts (3 for each promise) according to the solution I found on the internet.So what should I do? ALSO now I am very scared to swear in the name of Allah.

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

Your zeal and enthusiasm to learn the correct teachings of Islam is commendable. May Allah Ta’āla continue increasing your zeal for deen. Ameen.

1. A) You have stated that you prayed ” sijda sahu witr in a masjid congregation, following others which was not hanafi”. What do you mean by this? Do you mean that you preformed witir salāh behind an imam who was not a Hanafi? If so, then your witir will be valid on the condition that the imam did not make salam after the second rakah.  

If the Imam made salam after the second rakah and then performed the third rakah separately, the witr of the hanafi followers will not be valid, and will have to be repeated.[1]

1. B) In principle, if a quarter of a limb within the ‘awrah (for a male the ‘awrah is from under the belly button till past the knees) is exposed, the salāh will be invalidated.[2] [3] Accordingly, your salāh and your father’s salāh will not be valid and will have to be repeated. It should be kept in mind that one should dress modestly while praying.

1.C) From amongst the prerequisites of salāh, one is for the body to be pure[4]. In the above mentioned situation it would have been ideal to first clean your body properly, and then commence with your salah. Nonetheless, you state that later you made qadhaa of that salah, do continue making tawbah (asking forgiveness from Allah).

2. It should be borne in mind that one should not haphazardly take oaths by Allah as is the habit of people nowadays. 

Nonetheless the kaffarah for breaking an oath is as follows[5]:

1. Freeing a slave, or

2. Feeding ten poor people two average meals, or

3. Clothing ten poor people that is sufficient to conceal their bodies.

Only when one is unable to fulfil any of the above three due a valid reason, one will be permitted to fast for three consecutive days.[6]

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Abdullah Ghadai

Student Darul Iftaa
Michigan, U.S.A 

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.


[1] الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (2/ 7)

(وصح الاقتداء فيه) ففي غيره أولى إن لم يتحقق منه ما يفسدها في الأصح كما بسطه في البحر (بشافعي) مثلا (لم يفصله بسلام) لا إن فصله (على الأصح) فيهما للاتحاد وإن اختلف الاعتقاد (و) لذا (ينوب الوتر لا الوتر الواجب كما في العيدين) للاختلاف (ويأتي المأموم بقنوت الوتر) ولو بشافعي يقنت بعد الركوع لأنه مجتهد فيه.

 الفتاوى الهندية – ط. دار الفكر (1/ 111)

 ولو صلى الوتر بمن يقنت في الوتر بعد الركوع في القومة والمقتدي لا يرى ذلك تابعه فيه هكذا في فتاوى قاضي خان

[2] الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (1/ 408)

قوله ويمنع إلخ) هذا تفصيل ما أجمله بقوله وستر عورته ح (قوله حتى انعقادها) منصوب عطفا على محذوف أي ويمنع صحة الصلاة حتى انعقادها. والحاصل أنه يمنع الصلاة في الابتداء. ويرفعها في البقاء ح (قوله قدر أداء ركن) أي بسنته منية. قال شارحها: وذلك قدر ثلاث تسبيحات اهـ وكأنه قيد بذلك حملا للركن على القصير منه للاحتياط

[3] الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (1/ 408)

(وَيُمْنَعُ) حَتَّى انْعِقَادَهَا (كَشْفُ رُبْعِ عُضْوٍ) قَدْرَ أَدَاءِ رُكْنٍ بِلَا صُنْعِهِ (مِنْ) عَوْرَةٍ غَلِيظَةٍ أَوْ خَفِيفَةٍ عَلَى الْمُعْتَمَدِ (وَالْغَلِيظَةُ قُبُلٌ وَدُبُرٌ وَمَا حَوْلَهُمَا، وَالْخَفِيفَةُ مَا عَدَا ذَلِكَ) مِنْ الرَّجُلِ وَالْمَرْأَةِ، وَتُجْمَعُ بِالْأَجْزَاءِ لَوْ فِي عُضْوٍ وَاحِدٍ، وَإِلَّا فَبِالْقَدْرِ؛ فَإِنْ بَلَغَ رُبْعَ أَدْنَاهَا كَأُذُنٍ مُنِعَ

 

[4] منحة السلوك في شرح تحفة الملوك (ص: 114(

قوله: (طهارة المصلي ولباسه ومكانه: شرط) أما طهارة المصلي: فهي طهارة بدنه من الحدث والخبث، أما من الحدث: فلقوله تعالى: {يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا قُمْتُمْ إِلَى الصَّلاةِ} [المائدة: 6]. وأما من الخبث: فلأن الصلاة مناجاة مع ربه، فيجب أن يكون على أحسن حال، وذا: في طهارته وطهارة ما يتصل به، وأما طهارة لباسه: فلقوله تعالى: {وَثِيَابَكَ فَطَهِّرْ} [المدثر: 4] وأما طهارة مكانه: فبالاقتضاء، لأنه إذا وجب في الثوب وجب في المكان بطريق الاقتضاء، لأنه ألزم للمصلي من الثوب، إذ لا وجود للمصلي بدونه.

[5] (تنوير الأبصار و جامع البحار، ج ٣، ص ٧٢٥-٧٢٦)

و كفارته تحرير رقبة أو اطعام عشرة مساكين أو كسوتهم بما يستر عامة البدن

[6] (تنوير الأبصار و جامع البحار، ج٣، ص ٧٢٧)

و ان عجز عنها صام ثلاثة أيام ولاء 

This answer was collected from Askimam.org, which is operated under the supervision of Mufti Ebrahim Desai from South Africa.

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