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I have come across this hadith and have a few question:   Abu Musa’ reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: When it will be the Day of Resurrection Allah would deliver to every Muslim a Jew or a Christian and say: That is your RESCUE from Hell-Fthe   what is meant by deliver? the hadith says every muslim, so does that include the sinful ones such as one who steals or murders? does it mean every jew or christian, even ones who do good deeds? and with this hadith: Abu Burda reported on the authority of his father that Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: No Muslim would die but Allah would admit IN HIS STEAD a Jew or a Christian in Hell-Fire again, when it says no muslim, does it mean sinful muslims as well such as a muslim murderer  and what is meant by in his stead? does it mean any jew or christian, even the good ones?

Answered according to Hanafi Fiqh by Askimam.org

I have come across this hadith and have a few question:

 

Abu Musa’ reported that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: When it will be the Day of Resurrection Allah would deliver to every Muslim a Jew or a Christian and say: That is your RESCUE from Hell-Fthe

 

what is meant by deliver? the hadith says every muslim, so does that include the sinful ones such as one who steals or murders? does it mean every jew or christian, even ones who do good deeds?

and with this hadith:

Abu Burda reported on the authority of his father that Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: No Muslim would die but Allah would admit IN HIS STEAD a Jew or a Christian in Hell-Fire

again, when it says no muslim, does it mean sinful muslims as well such as a muslim murderer  and what is meant by in his stead? does it mean any jew or christian, even the good ones?

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

عَنْ أَبِي مُوسَى، قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: ” إِذَا كَانَ يَوْمُ الْقِيَامَةِ، دَفَعَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِلَى كُلِّ مُسْلِمٍ، يَهُودِيًّا، أَوْ نَصْرَانِيًّا، فَيَقُولُ: هَذَا فِكَاكُكَ مِنَ النَّارِ ” (الصحيح لمسلم/ باب سعة رحمة الله تعالى على المؤمنين وفداء كل مسلم بكافر من النار)

Narrated by Abu Musa, he said, Rasulullah salla Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said: On the Day of Resurrection, Allah will hand over to every Muslim a Jew or a Christian and say, “This is your ransom from the Fire.”   

عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، قَالَ: «لَا يَمُوتُ رَجُلٌ مُسْلِمٌ إِلَّا أَدْخَلَ اللهُ مَكَانَهُ النَّارَ، يَهُودِيًّا، أَوْ نَصْرَانِيًّا» (الصحيح لمسلم/ باب سعة رحمة الله تعالى على المؤمنين وفداء كل مسلم بكافر من النار)

…Nabi salla Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said: No Muslim dies but that Allah admits in his stead a Jew or Christian into the Fire. 

At the outset, it is imperative that we understand two core principles (in this discussion) in regards to belief, salvation, and affairs of the Hereafter:

  • Disbelief (kufr) is the greatest oppression and sin that incurs unlimited wrath of Allah and does not merit any cause for forgiveness. The reason is simple. Allah Ta‘ālā is the Master of the universe. He is the Owner of every creation. He is the Sovereign King. A disbeliever despite living in Allah’s kingdom, despite breathing the air Allah has provided, despite his very existence being a favor from Allah, denies the Being that continuously showers His blessings on him. Some deny Allah’s very existence, some deny His oneness, some claim false attributes in His right. All these are oppressions and sins of the highest order.
  • On the other hand, true belief in the oneness of Allah and His attributes is only natural and appreciated by Allah. It is in appreciation of one’s īmān and belief in Allah, that He will overlook and reward believers with Jannah, a place of eternal bliss.   

The two ahadith in reference are closely linked, and may be understood in light of a famous hadith of Ibn Majah narrated by Abu Hurairah radiAllah ‘anhu:

قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ -: “مَا مِنْكُمْ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلَّا لَهُ مَنْزِلَانِ: مَنْزِلٌ فِي الْجَنَّةِ، وَمَنْزِلٌ فِي النَّارِ، فَإِذَا مَاتَ فَدَخَلَ النَّارَ، وَرِثَ أَهْلُ الْجَنَّةِ مَنْزِلَهُ” فَذَلِكَ قَوْلُهُ عز وجل: {أُولَئِكَ هُمْ الْوَارِثُونَ}

Rasulullah salla Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said: Every one of you has two abodes. An abode in Paradise and another in the Fire. Hence, when one dies and enters Hell, the dwellers of Paradise inherit his residence. That is the meaning of the verse, “And verily they are the inheritors.”

The hadith in reference expresses the enhancement of reward for the believers, and intensity of punishment for the disbelievers. When the believers will be informed of their potential evil abode and their salvation therefrom, this relief in itself will be a reward. On the other hand, when the disbelievers will witness the colossal loss they have suffered due to their (voluntary) disbelief, they will increase in their remorse. The non-believers “inheriting” a second abode in the Fire does not mean Allah is punishing them for sins they did not perpetrate. The inherited abode was only a potential abode for the Muslims. As such, this second abode is a punishment for the sins (the greatest sin being disbelief) which the disbeliever himself committed, just like any other punishment.  

The word “ransom” in the first hadith means that Allah will tell a person, “You were in danger of entering into the Fire, and this is your ransom.” The reason being, Allah has stipulated a specific number of dwellers in the Fire. So when disbelievers enter the Fire (due to their own disbelief and sins) and “fill” the spots, it is as if they are “ransom” for the believers, not that they are in reality a ransom.

The explanation above is taken from Imam Nawawī’s commentary on Sahih Muslim.[1]

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Hisham Dawood

Student Darul Iftaa
Chicago, USA 

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

 

 

 


[1]

 قَوْلُهُ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ (إِذَا كَانَ يَوْمُ الْقِيَامَةِ دَفَعَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى إِلَى كُلِّ مُسْلِمٍ يَهُودِيًّا أَوْ نَصْرَانِيًّا فَيَقُولُ هَذَا فَكَاكُكَ مِنَ النَّارِ) وَفِي رِوَايَةٍ لَا يَمُوتُ رَجُلٌ مُسْلِمٌ إِلَّا أَدْخَلَ اللَّهُ مَكَانَهُ النَّارَ يَهُودِيًّا أَوْ نَصْرَانِيًّا وَفِي رِوَايَةٍ يَجِيءُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ نَاسٌ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ بِذُنُوبٍ أَمْثَالِ الْجِبَالِ فَيَغْفِرُهَا اللَّهُ لَهُمْ وَيَضَعُهَا عَلَى الْيَهُودِ وَالنَّصَارَى الْفَكَاكُ بِفَتْحِ الْفَاءِ وَكَسْرِهَا الْفَتْحُ أَفْصَحُ وَأَشْهَرُ وَهُوَ الْخَلَاصُ وَالْفِدَاءُ وَمَعْنَى هَذَا الْحَدِيثِ مَا جَاءَ فِي حَدِيثِ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ لِكُلِّ أَحَدٍ مَنْزِلٌ فِي الْجَنَّةِ وَمَنْزِلٌ فِي النَّارِ فَالْمُؤْمِنُ إِذَا دَخَلَ الْجَنَّةَ خَلَفَهُ الْكَافِرُ فِي النار لاستحقاقه ذلك بكفره ومعنى فَكَاكُكَ مِنَ النَّارِ أَنَّكَ كُنْتَ مُعَرَّضًا لِدُخُولِ النَّارِ وَهَذَا فَكَاكُكَ لِأَنَّ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى قَدَّرَ لَهَا عَدَدًا يَمْلَؤُهَا فَإِذَا دَخَلَهَا الْكُفَّارُ بِكُفْرِهِمْ وَذُنُوبِهِمْ صَارُوا فِي مَعْنَى الْفَكَاكِ لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ

This answer was collected from Askimam.org, which is operated under the supervision of Mufti Ebrahim Desai from South Africa.

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