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Is it predestined that how much money a person would earn?

Answered according to Hanafi Fiqh by Askimam.org

Assalamu Alaikum,

My question is about Qadr. Is it predestined that how much money a person would income? Is it thus that no matter what he/she does or doesn’t; it would not affect the total amount of money he/she would gain. I also heard that the way you would earn this total income, would be determined by your intention.

Suppose, It is written in your faith, that you would earn a total of $50 in your lifetime. If you want to remain in just way, Allah would let you earn this money in fair way. Again, if you seek to be mischievous, u’d earn this $50 in Haram way. But it doesn’t matter what you do or don’t; u will must have earn accurately this $50.

please clarify… JazakaaAllahu Khairan for your reply.

 

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

The subject of Qadr (predestination) could easily be understood through the following three issues.

1)     The absolute knowledge of Allah (علم الالهي)

2)     The world of means (دار الاسباب)

3)     The right of choice (اختيار)

The knowledge of Allah is absolute and comprehensive. Allah knows everything about the future. Allah says;

إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَالِمُ غَيْبِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ إِنَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِذَاتِ الصُّدُورِ 

Indeed, Allah is Knower of the unseen of the heavens and earth. Indeed, He is All-knowing of that within the breasts (hearts). (Quran 35:38)

This world is a world of means and cause and effect. We have to adopt means to effect issues. It is our belief that Allah decrees effect in the means we adopt, if Allah wills.

It should also be understood this world is دار الامتحان, a place of test for us. Accordingly, Allah has given us the right of choice which is one of the basis of us being rewarded or punished. If we did not have the right of choice, reward and punishment would be futile, thus questioning the entire concept of Jannah and Jahannam. Your query on Qadr should be understood within the above three points.

Allah in His infinite and absolute knowledge knows ahead of time that a particular individual would earn something. The knowledge of Allah is perfect and cannot falter. Everything will be according to the absolute knowledge of Allah. However, the knowledge of Allah about the future does not absolve a person from adopting means in this world of means. For example, if Allah knows ahead of time according to His perfect and absolute knowledge that Zaid will earn $50 million. This does not mean Zaid will automatically have $50 million without adopting the means of having $50 million. Zaid will adopt the means to earn the money and would be guided to do so.

Consider the following Hadith;

Ali (رضي الله عنه) narrates that once while the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was in a funeral procession, he picked up something and started scraping the ground with it, and said, “There is none among you but has his place written for him either in the Hell Fire or in Paradise.”

They (Companions) said, “O Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم)! Shall we not depend upon what has been written for us and give up deeds?”

He said, “Carry on doing (good) deeds, for everybody will find easy to do such deeds as will lead him to his destined place for which he has been created. So he who is destined to be among the happy (in the Hereafter), will find it easy to do the deeds characteristic of such people, while he who is destined to be among the miserable ones, will find it easy to do the deeds characteristic of such people.”[1]

In doing so, Allah has given Zaid the choice (اختيار) to earn his money the right way or wrong way. Zaid will be rewarded for earning his money the right way and punished for earning the money the wrong way.

However, Allah knows ahead of time that Zaid will earn $50 million the right way or wrong way. The mere knowledge of Allah does not impose the will of Allah on an individual that deprives him of his independent choice of doing things. It is also true that if Zaid did not adopt the haram way of earning the $50 million, he would still earn the $50 million the halal way if he would adopt the correct way.

In brief, Qadr refers to the absolute knowledge of Allah of issues of the future without detracting on the will of an individual. 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Saad Haque

Student Darul Iftaa
New Jersey, USA 

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.


[1] صحيح البخاري ٤٩٤٩

حَدَّثَنَا آدَمُ، حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ، عَنِ الأَعْمَشِ، قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ سَعْدَ بْنَ عُبَيْدَةَ، يُحَدِّثُ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ السُّلَمِيِّ، عَنْ عَلِيٍّ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ قَالَ: كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فِي جَنَازَةٍ، فَأَخَذَ شَيْئًا فَجَعَلَ يَنْكُتُ بِهِ الأَرْضَ، فَقَالَ: «مَا مِنْكُمْ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلَّا وَقَدْ كُتِبَ مَقْعَدُهُ مِنَ النَّارِ، وَمَقْعَدُهُ مِنَ الجَنَّةِ» قَالُوا: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، أَفَلاَ نَتَّكِلُ عَلَى كِتَابِنَا، وَنَدَعُ العَمَلَ؟ قَالَ: «اعْمَلُوا فَكُلٌّ مُيَسَّرٌ لِمَا خُلِقَ لَهُ، أَمَّا مَنْ كَانَ مِنْ أَهْلِ السَّعَادَةِ فَيُيَسَّرُ لِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ السَّعَادَةِ، وَأَمَّا مَنْ كَانَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الشَّقَاءِ فَيُيَسَّرُ لِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ الشَّقَاوَةِ»، ثُمَّ قَرَأَ: {فَأَمَّا مَنْ أَعْطَى وَاتَّقَى وَصَدَّقَ بِالحُسْنَى} [الليل: 6] الآيَةَ

This answer was collected from Askimam.org, which is operated under the supervision of Mufti Ebrahim Desai from South Africa.

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