as-salamu `alaykum wa rahmatuLlah, ya saadah al-ahibba’! Firstly, I’d like to congratulate you for this brilliant khidmah for the ummah al-muhammadiyyah sallaLlahu `alayhi wa `ala alihi wa sahbihi wa sallam. amma ba`du:
What is the mu`tamad opinion, of the shafi`i madh-hab, with regards to darb ad-daff outside of al-`urs and al-khatan, though for occasions of happiness such as recitation of qasidahs relating to the mawlid an-nabi sallaLlahu `alayhi wa sallam. According to Imam an-Nawawi in the majmu`:
ويجوز ضرب الدف في العرس والختان دون غيرهما
though according to al-mawsu`aat al-fiqh-hiyyah:
ويجوز في غير العرس والختان ممّا هو سبب لإظهار السرور
Which is the mu`tamad, which are the strong opinions and which are the weak opinions.
Keep me in your duas — was-salam
Wa alaykum salam wa rahmatuLlahi wa barakatuHu,
So far, I have been unable to locate the cited quotation in Sharh al-Muhadhdhab. Perhaps, a more detailed reference to it can be provided insha’Allah. In al-Mawsu’at al-Fiqhiyyah al-Kuwaytiyyah, the duff is discussed in two different places. Firstly, in v. 28, p. 178 and then in v. 38, p. 169. The first is found under the entry ضرب. And the second is under the entry معازف.
In Minhaj al-Talibin, Imam Nawawi stated,
“The duff for a wedding and circumcision is permissible; likewise, other than those according to the relied-upon view [al-asahh].” (p. 568)
“Meaning, for other than a wedding or circumcision, when there is a reason for displaying happiness, like for a child being born, an Eid, a missed one’s return, the curing of a sick person…” (Mughni al-Muhtaj v. 4, p. 572) And Ibn Hajar mentioned something similar. (Tuhfat al-Muhtaj v. 10, p. 220-21)
Considering it permissible for other such events is supported by what Ibn Hibban related,
“Allah’s Messenger returned from a campaign, then the slave-girl Sawda came and said, ‘O Allah’s Messenger! Verily, I vowed that if Allah brought you back safe, I would beat the duff.’ The Prophet replied, ‘If you vowed, then do so. And if not, then don’t.’ She said in return, ‘I did make the vow.’ Then, the Prophet Muhammad sat while she beat the duff.” (Sahih Ibn Hibban v. 10, p. 232)
This hadith is authentic, its narrators are thiqat. Regarding Husayn b. Waqid, Ibn Ma’in vindicated him; and Abu Abd Allah and Abu Zur’ah said, “La ba’sa bihi.” (Ibn Abi Hatim’s al-Jarh wa al-Ta’dil. v. 3, p. 66) Also, Hafiz Dhahabi mentioned him in Kashif. (v. 1, p. 336) Muslim, Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud, Nasai’i, and Ibn Majah related from him. In Taqrib al-Tahdhib, Ibn Hajar said, “thiqah la hu awham.” (p. 169) Ibn al-Mubarak is cited to have said, “laysa bi al-hafiz wa la yutraku hadithu hu.” (Footnote from Bukhari’s al-Tarikh al-Kabir, v. 2, p. 389)
And Allah knows best.
Shafiifiqh.com Fatwa Dept.