please advise on the correct way of making fatheha. are we allowed to place food (niaz) in front while making fatheha and then blowing onto the niaz.
In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful
Assalaamu `alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatuh
Allah Ta’ala mentions in the holy Quran; “ Today I have perfected your religion for you, completed my favor upon you, and have chosen for you islam as your religion”.(05:03)
Allah Ta’ala states about Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) “If you obey him, you will be guided.” (24:54)
Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said; “All my followers will enter jannah except the one who refuse, when he was asked who refused, he replied; He who obeys me will enter jannah and he who disobeyed me has refused”. ( Mishkat, Vol.1. Pg.27. Qadimi kukub )
Our success in this world and in the hereafter lies in following the lifestyle of Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam).
Jabir (radi allahu annhu) says when Sa’ad (radi allahu anhu) passed away and he was placed in his grave, sand was thrown over his grave and levelled flat, Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) then recited tasbih i.e.(subhan-allah) Upon that, we all recited tasbih (after him). Then Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) said takbir (allahu akbar) upon which we all said takbir . Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) was asked “Why did you do this?” He replied “The grave began enclosing upon Sa’ad (Radi Allahu Anhu). Thus I continued reciting tasbih and takbir until Allah Ta’ala comforted him.
Similarly, when Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) would complete the burial of anyone, he would stand by the grave and say “ask forgiveness for your companion and may Allah Ta’ala make it easy for him to say Kalimah Shahada at the time of questioning by Munkar and Nakir for he is being questioned presently.”
Baraa bin Azib (Radi Allahu Anhu) said “we were once sitting with Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) after the death of someone when Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) said to us “Seek protection in Allah Ta’ala from the punishment of the grave. (Mishkat, Vol.1. Pg. 26 & 141.)
Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) is reported to have said; “The best of speeches is the speech of Allah Ta’ala (Quran) and the best of guidance is the guidance which I showed, and the worst of all actions is innovation and that which is innovated and is not part of deen will be rejected and all innovations is misguidance (Mishkat Vol.1. Pg. 27. Qadimi Kutub Khana).
In order for us to be guided on the straight path, we should follow the teachings of Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam).
When people passed away during the time of Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam), no specific actions were done by the Sahaba (radi allahu anhum) except what Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) did or told the Sahaba (radi allahu anhum) to do. Example Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) said “When the deceased are placed in the grave then recite the opening verses of Sura Baqara by his head side and recite the ending verses of Sara Baqara by his feet.” Likewise, Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) once told a Sahabi “Recite Sura Yaseen by your deceased.
(Mishkat Ma’a Mirquat Vol.4. Pg. 81 Mataba Imdadiya
(Mishkat Vol.2. Pg. 421 Qadimi Kutub Khana)
The procedure of fateha for esale sawab is not established from quran or hadith, thus it is bidah. If one intends esale sawab for the decease the following should be considered.
a. Dua: Aisha (Radi allahu anha) says; Once Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) stood in Jannat al-Baqi making dua for the deceased. (Nasai. Vol.1.Pg. 286. Qadim)
b. Istigfaar (asking forgivness): Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) said; The status of a father will be elevated (after his death) in jannah because of the istigfar of his son on his behalf. (Mishkat Vol.1.Pg.205 Qadimi Kukub Khana).
c. Qurbani: (sacrificing animals). Ali (Radi alahu anhu) said; Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) bequeathed me to do a qurbani on his behalf. (Mishkat Vol 1 Pg 128 Qadimi Kutub Khana).
d. Sadaqa: (Charity) Once a person came to Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) and said, “My mother has passed away Can I give sadaqa (on her behalf) and she will receive the reward, Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) replied ‘yes’.” (Muslim Vol.1 Pg.324.Maktaba
e. Sadaqa Jariya (Reccurring charity): Example, Building a masjid, building a musafir khana, or giving some books to an Islamic institution, digging a well etc. As long as these things exist, the deceased will receive the reward for his contributions.
f. Knowledge: Whatever Quran, fiqh, hadith, principles of deen or advice one passed to others whereby people benefited from it, then one will continue receiving the rewards. (Muslim, Vol. 2. Pg. 41. Maktaba Thanwi Deoband)
g. Esale sawab of Nafl salat and Nafl Fasting also reaches the deceased.
h. Hajj: A woman came to Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) and said, “My mother passed away…..until she asked….can I perform hajj on her behalf Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) replied yes (you can).” (Bukhari, Vol.1. Pg. 250. Qadimi kutub khana)
i. Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) said; The deceased person is like a drowning person (that is always awaiting our help).
Practically, Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) has shown us how to send esale sawab. Therefore, we should follow the guidance of Nabi (Sallallahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) and abstain from customs and innovations such as fateha.
(Fatawa Mahmodia Vol.1.Pg.229. kutub khana Mazhari)
(Aap Ka Masail Vol.1 Pg.118. Maktaba Bayanat)
And Allah knows best
Ml. Safraz Mohammed,
Student Darul Iftaa
Checked and Approved by:
Mufti Ebrahim Desai
Darul Iftaa, Madrassah In’aamiyyah