Question: Do I begin to pray if my period surpasses 10 days?
May Allah, Most High reward you abundantly for your desire to increase in knowledge.
If your period continues after day #10, you should make the major ablution (ghusl) and begin to pray.
According to the Hanafi School, the maximum duration for a cycle of menstruation is 10 days. Any discharge after this is considered “chronic menstrual bleeding” (istihada).
The ruling for someone who is going through istihada is that they must perform ablution (wudu) for the time of every prayer and pray with that ablution. Once that prayer time is up, they must make a new ablution for the next prayer. [Maydani, al-Lubab]
For example, Zuhr prayer enters at 1 pm. This individual must make ablution and pray Zuhr. They may also perform any optional prayers or any other acts of devotion such as reading the Quran. Asr prayer enters at 4 pm. At 4 pm, they must make a new ablution in order to pray Asr.
Changing the Sanitary Napkin or Pad
You do not need to change the pad if the blood or discharge is less than 6cm.
If you are sure that you will bleed from one prayer time to another, then there is no necessity to change the pad.
If you are unsure about the bleeding or are feeling that most likely you will no longer bleed, then it is recommended to change the pad.
And Allah knows best,
Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani