Answered by Sidi Salim Ghisa
I want to know that if one Muslim (hanafi) misses a Salatul-Asr Jamat. Then at what shortest time before maghrib prayer he alone can (without jamat) offer Asr Prayer including 4 rakats sunnah.
In the Name of Allah, Most Merciful and Compassionate. May His blessings and peace be on His Beloved Prophet, the best of creation, and his family, companions, and followers.
A. If Asr congregation is missed, then Asr Salah including the 4 cycles of Sunnah can still be prayed where both the Fardh and Sunnah are completed before the prohibitively disliked time (makruh). Otherwise only the Fardh Asr Salah is allowed and not the Sunnah. If by praying the Sunnah you would enter in to the Makrooh times or your Fardh will go in to the Makrooh time, then you should miss your Sunnah and only pray the four cycles of Fardh.
The Makrooh time is when the sun starts to set (when it turns red and can be directly looked at by the human eye), this is usually 20 mins before Maghrib. To deliberately delay (without a valid reason according to Islamic Shariah law) the Asr Salaah until the Makrooh time is not permissible and carries a sin.
However, if you have not prayed your Asr Salaah for that day then you must still pray the Fardh, and this is allowed all the way up to the Maghrib beginning time. If the opening Takbir is said in the Asr time and whilst you were praying your Asr Salaah, the Maghrib time began then your Asr will still be valid [though sinful for the delay, and also for not completing it within its time]. No voluntary or Sunnah prayers are allowed in the Makrooh times only that day’s Fardh for Asr. (Ibn Abidin, Radd-ul Muhtar; Alamgiri)
Muhammad Salim Ghisa.