How are Islamic rites observed in outer space (e.g. on the ISS)? Is this fatwa authentic http://www.islam.gov.my/sites/default/files/buku_panduan_4_bahasa.pdf?
Also, how are prayer times observed in regions where the sun does not set for at least some part of the year?
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.
1) Kindly advise what Islamic rites you are referring to be observed in space. With that, provide us details of the situation in outer space for consideration of implementing the specific rites in space.
2) With regards to your question it will be necessary to pray the five daily prayers within the 24 hour time.
This can be deduced from the following hadith, when the Prophet of Allah Sallallahu Alahi Wasalam was asked “How long would the (Dajjal) live on Earth?” He replied “40 days, a day being equal to a year and a day being equal to a month and a day being equal to a week, and its all other days would be like your days.” We then asked “Will the prayer (prescribed during) a day suffice us for that day which would be equal to a year?” He said, “Make an assessment of it.” (Sunan Ibn Majah p.297 v.2)
In those countries where the sun does not set for some part of the year, (e.g. Alaska, Iceland, Norway), the Fuqahaa (jurists) have mentioned the following methods in estimating the time of Fajr and Ishaa;
1) The timings from the last normal day(of sunset and sunrise). For example, from the 16th of May there is no Islamic nightfall, the time Subh Sadiq was on the 15thof May will be the time one will perform his Fajr salah. (This method may however be difficult to adopt, as on the last day of sunset, there is only about 8 minutes between sunset and dawn)
2) The Salah timings from the nearest country in which the sun sets.
3) When the sun declines towards sunset, it would be the time for Maghrib and Isha. The first part of the time (setting of the sun) will be for Maghrib and the second half of the time will be for Isha. When the sun begins to ascend it will be the time for Fajr.
The second opinion seems the easiest to follow.
And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best
Mufti Arshad Ali
Darul Iftaa, Jaamia Madinatul Uloom (Trinidad)
 Fatawa Darul Uloom Zakariyya (2/44)
الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (2/ 28-24)
ناظورة الحق (335)
This answer was collected from Fatwa-tt.com, which is operated by the Darul Iftaa of Jaamia Madinatul Uloom (Trinidad and Tobago) under the advice and guidance of Mufti Ebrahim Desai (Daamat Barakaatuhum) of South Africa.