As Salaamu Alaikum,
What is the method to make the Sajdah Shukr (prostration of gratitude) according the four school? Because someone claim it’s no need of whudu to perform it, and one can keep his shoes? Jazakallah khayran.
Wa Alaikum As Salaam,
According to the overwhelming majority of scholars and jurists, the Sajda of Shukr (prostration for expressing gratitude) is well established in the traditions of the Prophet (S.A.S) and it is one which brings rewards and blessings to the one who does it.
The ruling of this (Sajdah of Shukr) according to Imam Shafi (A.R) and Imam Ahmad (A.R) is that it is Mustahab.
According to Imam Abu Yusuf (A.R) and Muhammad (A.R) of the Hanafi Madhhab, the Sajda of Shukr is Mustahab also, and this is the opinion on which the official (fatawa) ruling has been given in the Hanafi Madhhab. (Fiqhul Islami Wa Adilatihi Vol. 2 pg. 1144 Maktaba Rasheediya Queta Pakistan, Qamoos Al Fiqh Vol. 4 pg. 137 Zam Zam publishers Karachi 2007, Radd Al Muhtaar Vol. 2 pg. 119 H.M Saeed Karachi).
With respect to the opinion of Imam Malik (A.R), it is narrated that he considered the Sajda Shukr to be Makrooh, and this is known to be his firm opinion. However, according to some Maliki scholars like Ibn Habeeb Maliki, the Sajda of Shukr is permissible and can be done. In fact, form the writings of some Maliki scholars, it is evident that while the mere prostration to express gratitude is not recommended, one is encouraged to perform two rakaats of Salaah to show thanks to Allah.
Regarding this, Dr. Wahba Az Zuhaili wrote, ‘The Malikis state that it is Mustahab at the time of achieving a favor or at the time when a misfortune or adversity is turned away, for one to perform two rakaats of Salaah (in showing gratitude to Allah) since this was the practice of the people in Madinah’. (Fiqhul Islami Wa Adilatihi Vol. 2 pg. 1145).
This practice is one which is encouraged by other scholars also. In this regard, it is stated, ‘ If one performs two rakaats of Salaah as a form of expressing gratitude to Allah instead of simply doing the prostration of gratitude (Sajda Shukr), then this is the best, since the Prophet (S.A.S) himself performed two rakaats of shukr (gratitude) upon the conquest of Makkah. Imam An Nawawi in his ‘Sharh Muhadhab’ has also encouraged one to do this’. (Qamoos Al Fiqh Vol. 4 pg. 137 Zam Zam publishers Karachi 2007, Al Fatawa Ta’tar Khaniya Vol. 1 pg. 572 Qadeemi Karachi).
Nevertheless, the Sajda of Shukr (prostration to express gratitude to Allah) is established in the traditions, and as some scholars have written, ‘it is Mustahab according to the Jumhoor’ (over whelming majority of scholars). (Fiqhul Islami Wa Adilatihi Vol. 2 pg. 1144).
The evidence for this is that it is narrated from Abu Bakrah (A.R) that whenever a matter came to the Prophet (S.A.S) which made him happy, or through which he received good news, he will fall into prostration, expressing gratitude to Allah’. (Abu Dawood, Tirmidhi).
It is also narrated that Abu Bakr Siddeeq (A.R)made Sajda Shukr when he gained victory in the battle of Yamamah. Ali (A.R) also made the Sajda Shukr when he gained victory against the Khawarij. The same has been narrated from a number of Sahabahs (Al Mawsoo’ah Al Fiqhiya Vol. 24 pg. 246 Maktaba Uloom Al Islamiya Chaman Baluchistan 2011).
With respect to the method of performing the Sajda of Shukr, all the scholars are unanimous that all the conditions that are necessary for the soundness and validity of Sajda of Tilawah (Sajda of recitation of the Quran) are the same conditions that must be fulfilled for the validity of the Sajda of Shukr.
This means that while performing this Sajda (Shukr), one must be in the state of Wudhu or ghusl (if necessary); One’s body and clothes must be free from impurities; the place on which sajda is made must be clean; the awrah must be covered; one must turn towards the Qibla and must have the intention of performing the Sajda Shukr. (Al Fiqhul Islami Wa Adilatihi Vol. 2 pgs, 1131,1146 Maktaba Rasheediya Queta Pakistan).
It is also mentioned in Al Mawsoo’ah Al Fiqhiya that in the Madhab of Imam Shafi (A.R) and that of Imam Ahmad (A.R), it is clearly stated that the conditions for Salah are the same conditions for the Sajda of Shukr. These include Tahara (purity and cleanliness), facing the Qibla, covering the awrah and avoiding the impurities. The Malikis who allow the Sajda of Shukr also state that purification is necessary for Sajda Shukr. (Al Mawsoo’ah Al Fiqhiyah Vol. 24 pg. 248 Maktaba Uloom Islamiya Chaman Baluchistan).
This is the same ruling given in the Hanafi Madhhab since the conditions for Sajda Tilawah are the same which must be present for the soundness of Sajda of Shukr. While explaining these conditions (for the validity of Sajda Tilawah), the great Hanafi Jurist, Imam Burhanudeen Abul Ma’ali Mahmood bin Sadr Ash Shariah Ibn Maazah Al Bukhari, writes in his well renowned work, ‘Al Muheet Al Burhani’, ‘We say, the conditions for its permissibility (that is, the permissibility of Sajda Tilawah), are the same conditions which must be present for the validity of Salaah. From among these are, the purity of the body from minor and major ritual impurity; the cleanliness of the clothes from impurities; the covering of the awrah, and facing the Qiblah’. (Al Muheet Al Burhani Vol. 2 pg. 363 Idara Al Quran Wal Uloom Al Islamiyah Karachi 2004).
Some Maliki scholars, as well as Hafiz Ibn Taimiyah, have stated that being in the state of Wudhu is not a condition for Sajda Shukr. However, as mentioned before, the overwhelming majority of jurists from the four schools of Islamic jurisprudence have stated that Taharah (purity) is a condition for the validity of Sajda of Shukr.
The manner of performing Sajda of Shukr is the same way of Sajda Tilawah, when it is done out of Salaah. This means that when one wishes to do a Sajda of Shukr, one will turn towards the Qiblah, say the Takbeer (Allahu Akbar) and perform one Sajda (prostration). In that Sajda, one will recite the same tasbeeh as one will recite in Sajda for Salaah (that is, Subhana Rabiyal ‘Ala). One will then say the Takbeer (Allahu Akbar) and raise one’s head from Sajda. One will not lift the hands while saying the Takbeer to go into Sajda, and after rising from the Sajdah, and there will be no Tashahud and no Salaam. (Al Mawsoo’ah Al Fiqhiyah Vol. 24 pgs 248,249 Maktaba Uloom Islamiyah Chaman Baluchistan; Al Muheet Al Burhani Vol. 2 pg 363 Idara Al Quran Wal Uloom Al Islamiyah Karachi 2004, Radd Al Muhtaar Vol. 2 pg. 119 H.M Saeed Karachi).
As mentioned by the Fuqaha (jurists) the Sajda of Shukr can be done for the following:-
When any new favor/bounty of Allah comes to a person; when Allah blesses a person with wealth or children; when a calamity has been removed from a person; when one has regained health after sickness; when one finds a lost item; when a person or his wealth has been saved from drowning or from fire; when one gains protection against his enemy etc. (Radd Al Muhtaar Vol. 2 pg. 119 H.M Saeed Karachi; Al Mawsoo’ah Fiqhiyah Vol. 24 pg 248 Maktab Uloom Islamiyah Baluchistan; Jawhara An Nayarah Vol. 1 pg. 214 Qadeemi Karachi)
With respect to when a person can do the Sajda of Shukr, the Jurists have mentioned that it can be done anytime during the day or the night. However, one should not do it during the times when it is Makrooh to perform Nafl (optional) Salaah. One should also not do it during Salaah (that is, while one is performing Salaah).
The Jurists have further mentioned that the Sajdah of Shukr should not be done immediately after one has completed one’s Salaah, since it creates doubts in the minds of people that such a Sajdah is a part of Salaah.
The Jurists have also mentioned that one must not do the Sajdah of Shukr while one is engaged in listening to the Khutbah of Jum’ah. (Al Mawsoo’ah Al Fiqhiyah Vol.24 pg. 250 Maktaba Uloom Islamiyah Baluchistan; Qamoos Al Fiqh Vol. 4 pg. 137 Zam Zam publishers Karachi).
And Allah Knows best
Mufti Waseem Khan
This answer was collected from DarulUloomTT.net, which is operated under the supervision of Mufti Waseem Khan from Darul Uloom Trinidad and Tobago.