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Zakaat Funds for Madrasah Management/Construction

Answered according to Hanafi Fiqh by DaruliftaaZambia.com

Question

Assalamu Alaikum.

1. An Islamic institution is running 20 madressahs in different villages. There are more than 700 poor students learning in this madressah. Can the institution pay madressah fees for them from Zakaat funds so that the money received from fees can be used for wages and other expenses for the institution? Kindly find us the best and easiest way to implement it.

2. Further, can the institute convert such amounts of Zakaat funds into fees that are over and above the justified expenses relating to the madressahs, so that the extra amount can be utilized in a construction project for a parallel Islamic school?

Jazakallah.

 

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

At the outset, it should be understood that Zakaat is primarily meant for the poor and needy Muslims. The establishment, running and administration of Madrasahs, Islamic Schools and orphanages is a separate responsibility upon the Ummah through voluntary funding. However, where voluntary funding does not meet the requirements of such Islamic institutes, ‘Ulama have given a leeway for Zakaat funds to be conditionally utilised. In such scenarios, Zakaat funds should only be utilised as per need of the institute or organisation.

 

  1. Generally, the representatives/management of an institute who have been delegated to collect Zakaat on behalf of the institute serve as representatives of its needy students. However, in some aspects, they serve as representatives of those who have discharged their Zakaat.[1] Furthermore, Zakaat that is collected is not entirely meant for the direct use of the current students of the Madrasah and their needs, but for the administrative needs of the Madrasah.[2]

It should be borne in mind that for Zakaat to be discharged, it is conditional that a deserving recipient of Zakaat is made the unfettered owner of the Zakaatable item.[3] Hence, if physical transfer of ownership and due acceptance thereof by a specific worthy recipient does not take place, then the Zakaat would not be discharged. The Zakaat funds meant for use in Madrasahs also have to undergo this process.[4]

The Zakaat can only be discharged to deserving students i.e. those minor children who do not possess sufficient means and neither are their parents in a situation to adequately provide for their sound educational needs,[5] as well as those adult students who are deserving of Zakaat even though their parents are in a position to provide for them.[6] For this, the institute has to carry out a screening process if it has no record of its Zakaat worthy students.

The institute should thereafter inform each student that he/she shall be required to pay fees and the student should delegate the institute to source Zakaat funds for payment of the same.

As for those minor students who are too young to understand Zakaat matters and financial dealings, this agreement should be made with their parents.[7] The Zakaat can then be discharged in one of these ways:

  1. A fee structure should be set up and a physical fee payment process should be conducted. All such children should be summoned before your administration and after setting up a fee payment desk on the one side, these Zakaat funds should directly be given into their hands whereby they take ownership thereof and thereafter (having emphasized the need of paying for their education to them), they should then pass through the fees payment desk, pay for their monthly/annual fees with these. In this way, the Zakaat would be considered as discharged and valid to utilize for any of your madrasah needs thereafter.[8]
  2. A trustworthy, needy and Zakaat worthy individual should be identified. The management should explain to him the need for funds for the construction project and he should be encouraged to participate in contributing towards it. He should then be requested to take a loan and contribute that amount to the Madrasah as a gesture of goodwill. The management should then pay the individual the Zakaat funds in order for him to repay the loan that he had taken,[9] or the loan should be paid off with the Zakaat funds with his approval.[10]

 

  1. In principle, Zakaat funds may not directly be used for construction purposes, nor are they meant for such projects.[11] As far as possible, Zakaat funds should be distributed to their direct and primary recipients. The usage of Zakaat funds for other purposes defeats the objective of Zakaat.[12]

As far as the usage of Zakaat in Madrasahs for the direct benefit of the students is concerned, there is scope for that since it is upon Zakaat worthy individuals that Zakaat is being utilised. As for construction projects and other long-term investments and infrastructure, Lillah funds should be sourced as far as possible. In a situation of severe need, and after an intensive effort has been made to source Lillah funds, if such funds are still insufficient, Zakaat funds may be used for the construction of a simple Masjid or Madrasah, after undergoing a Heelah (change of ownership) process. However, Zakaat funds should be avoided for the school project.[13]

We advise that if the institute has collected any Lillah funds, then all such funds be allocated to the school project and Zakaat funds be utilised for the needs of the Madrasah, after undergoing a Heelah (change of ownership) process.

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Checked and Approved by,

Mufti Nabeel Valli.

Darul Iftaa Mahmudiyyah

Lusaka, Zambia

www.daruliftaazambia.com

__________________________

[1]   إمداد الفتاوى 3(/316) – مكتبة دار العلوم كراتشي

نظام الفتاوى (1/116) – مكتبه رحمانية

فتاوى محمودية (9/506-514) – فاروقية

فتاوى دار العلوم زكريا 3(/215) – زمزم

[2]   نظام الفتاوى (1/116) – مكتبه رحمانية

[3]   الفتاوى الهندية (1/ 170) – دار الفكر

أَمَّا تَفْسِيرُهَا فَهِيَ تَمْلِيكُ الْمَالِ من فَقِيرٍ مُسْلِمٍ غَيْرِ هَاشِمِيٍّ وَلَا مَوْلَاهُ بِشَرْطِ قَطْعِ الْمَنْفَعَةِ عن الْمُمَلِّكِ من كل وَجْهٍ لِلَّهِ تَعَالَى هذا في الشَّرْعِ كَذَا في التَّبْيِينِ

[4]   نظام الفتاوى (1/116) – مكتبه رحمانية

[5]   الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (2/ 269) – أيج أيم سعيد

(قوله: لولده الفقير) وإذا كان ولدا صغيرا فلا بد من كونه فقيرا أيضا لأن الصغير يعد غنيا بغنى أبيه أفاده ط

[6]   الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (2/ 349) – أيج أيم سعيد

…فيصرف إلى البالغ ولو ذكرا صحيحا قهستاني، فأفاد أن المراد بالطفل غير البالغ ذكرا كان أو أنثى في عيال

[7]   الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (2/ 344) – أيج أيم سعيد

 وفي التمليك إشارة إلى أنه لا يصرف إلى مجنون وصبي غير مراهق إلا إذا قبض لهما من يجوز له قبضه كالأب والوصي وغيرهما

[8]   فتاوى دار العلوم زكريا (3/210) – زمزم

[9]  الفتاوى الهندية (1/ 188) – دار الفكر

 وَمِنْهَا الْغَارِمُ وهو من لَزِمَهُ دَيْنٌ وَلَا يَمْلِكُ نِصَابًا فَاضِلًا عن دَيْنِهِ أو كان له مَالٌ على الناس لَا يُمْكِنُهُ أَخْذُهُ كَذَا في التَّبْيِينِ وَالدَّفْعُ إلَى من عليه الدَّيْنُ أَوْلَى من الدَّفْعِ إلَى الْفَقِيرِ كَذَا في الْمُضْمَرَاتِ

خير الفتاوى 3(/439)

[10]   الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (2/ 344) – أيج أيم سعيد

 أما دين الحي الفقير فيجوز لو بأمره

قال ابن عابدين: (قوله: فيجوز لو بأمره) أي يجوز عن الزكاة على أنه تمليك منه والدائن يقبضه بحكم النيابة عنه ثم يصير قابضا لنفسه فتح

أحسن الفتاوى (4/260) – أيج أيم سعيد

[11]   الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (2/ 344) – أيج أيم سعيد

ويشترط أن يكون الصرف (تمليكا) لا إباحة كما مر (لا) يصرف (إلى بناء) نحو (مسجد و)

الفتاوى الهندية (1/ 188) – دار الفكر

وَلَا يَجُوزُ أَنْ يَبْنِيَ بِالزَّكَاةِ الْمَسْجِدَ وَكَذَا الْقَنَاطِرُ وَالسِّقَايَاتُ وَإِصْلَاحُ الطَّرَقَاتِ وَكَرْيُ الْأَنْهَارِ وَالْحَجُّ وَالْجِهَادُ وَكُلُّ ما لَا تَمْلِيكَ فيه

[12]   فتاوى دار العلوم زكريا (3/210) – زمزم

[13]  فتاوى رحيمية (7/178) – دار الإشاعة


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