Answered by: Maulana Syed Johir Miah
Is Vasectomy permissible for men to avoid having children?
In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful
A vasectomy (male sterilisation) is a surgical procedure to cut or seal the tubes that carry a man’s sperm to permanently prevent pregnancy. It’s usually carried out under local anaesthetic, where you’re awake but don’t feel any pain, and takes about 15 minutes.
Under normal circumstances, irreversible contraception, whether it is in the form of vasectomy or tubectomy, is absolutely prohibited in Islam.
Sayyiduna Saad Bin Abi Waqqas( رضى الله عنه ) narrated that;
رَدَّ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ﷺ عَلى عُثْمانَ بْنِ مَظْعُونٍ التَّبَتُّلَ، ولَوْ أذِنَ لَهُ لاَخْتَصَيْنا
Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم)forbade Usman Bin Mazun to abstain from marrying (and other pleasures) and if he(صلى الله عليه وسلم) had allowed him, we would have gotten ourselves castrated.
Likewise, Sayyiduna Abdullah Ibn Masud ( رضى الله عنه ) says,
كُنَّا نَغْزُو مَعَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لَيْسَ لَنَا نِسَاءٌ، فَقُلْنَا: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، أَلاَ نَسْتَخْصِي؟ «فَنَهَانَا عَنْ ذَلِكَ
“We used to engage in Jihad with the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم)and we had no one (with whom we could fulfil our desires). So, we asked if we could get ourselves castrated. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) forbade us from doing so”.
Where it has been confirmed by a specialist doctor that pregnancy may cause possible harm to the mother, contraception will be permitted.
Contraceptives such as; condoms, pills or other such methods temporarily make the woman incapable of conceiving.
However, it is impermissible to take any permanent methods, procedures or surgical procedures which are available.
Permanent contraception is permissible only if the woman’s life is in danger or her health is seriously permanently threatened and is advised by a practising and pious Muslim doctor.
As for the castration of a man, it is impermissible. 
Although there is a clear prohibition of male and female sterilisation, only in an absolute case of necessity, it will be permissible to carry out an irreversible method of contraception.
Only Allah knows best.
Written by Maulana Syed Johir Miah
Checked and approved by Mufti Mohammed Tosir Miah
Darul Ifta Birmingham
Sahih Bukhari, Hadith number 5073, 4/7, Dar Tuqin Najah, First edition 2001. 1422 H.
Sahih Bukhari, Hadith number 5071, 4/7, Dar Tuqin Najah, First edition 2001. 1422 H.
وَأَمَّا خِصَاءُ الْآدَمِيِّ فَحَرَامٌ
Durrul Mukhtar, 660/1, Darul Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, 1423 H.
Raddul Muhtar, 388/6, Darul Fikr, Beirut, Lebanon, 1412 H.
إن إخصاء بني آدم حرام بالاتفاق
Al-Muheetul Burhanee, Ibn Mazah, 376/5, Darul Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah. 1424 H.
الضرورات تبيح المَحْظُورات Necessities permits prohibitions
Al-Qawaidul Fiqhiyyah, Abdullah Bin Juday, Page 43.
Al-Manthoor Fil Qawaidil Fiqhiyyah, Imam Zarakshi, 89/1, Wizaratul Awqaf, Kuwait, 1405H.
Al-Ashbaah Wan-Nazair, Ibn Nujaim,73/1, Darul Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, Lebanon, 1419 H.