Answered by Shaykh Hamza Karamali, SunniPath Academy Teacher
What is the shafi’i ruling for this question?
In the Name of Allah, Most Merciful and Compassionate
wa `alaykum as salam wa rahmatullah wa barakatuh
The takbirat of Eid
The days of Hajj are special days of the year, and the Sacred Law has legislated a special form of rememberance (dhikr) during some of these days, called takbirat. These takbirat are:
Allahu akbaru Llahu akbaru Llahu akbar; La ilaha illa Llah; Wa Llahu akbaru Llahu akbar; Wa lillahi Lhamd
(Allah is the greatest; Allah is the greatest; there is no god but Allah; Allah is the greatest; Allah is the greatest; and to Allah belongs all praise.)
Based on the practice of the Companions and the early Muslims (salaf), Imam Shafi`i (Allah be pleased with him) held that it is praiseworthy to also add the following:
Allahu akbaru kabira; Wa Lhamdu lillahi kathira; Wa subhanallahi bukratan wa aseela; La ilaha illa Llah; Wa la na`budu illa iyyahu mukhlisina lahu Ddina wa law kariha Lkafirun; La ilaha illa Llahu wahdah; Sadaqa wa`dah; Wa nasara `abdah; Wa a`azza jundahu wa hazama Lahzaba wahdah; La ilaha illa Llahu wa Llahu akbar
(Allah is truly the greatest; much praise be to Allah; Allah be glorified in the morning and the evening; there is no god but Allah; we worship none but Him, making our religion sincerely His even if the disbelievers may detest it; there is no god but Allah alone; He has fulfilled His promise, aided His slave, honoured His army, and He alone has destroyed the groups [h: of disbelievers who collaborated to extinguish Islam in the time of the Prophet]; there is no god but Allah; Allah is the greatest)
It is the inherited practice of Muslims across the Muslim world to send blessings on the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), his folk, his companions, his wives, and his offspring after reciting all of the above. Doing this is always praiseworthy, and there is nothing wrong with doing it here. The Shafi`is have, however, differed whether this blessing is specifically legislated along with the takbirat.
Timing of the takbirat
There are two kinds of takbirat: (1) takbirat that are legislated regardless of circumstance (mutlaq) and (2) takbirat that are specifically legislated to be recited after prayers (muqayyad).
The timing for the first kind of takbirat is from sunset on the eve of Eid (10th Dhul Hijjah) until the start of the Eid prayer. In other words, it is recommended to repeat the takbirat during this time as frequently as possible at all times.
The timing for the second kind of takbirat is from fajr of the Day of `Arafah (9th Dhul Hijjah) until `asr on the 3rd day after Eid (13th Dhul Hijjah). In other words, it is recommended to repeat the takbirat during these days after every prayer that one performs, whether obligatory or non-obligatory.
– It is recommended form men to say the takbirat out loud. Women should say them silently in the presence of men who aren’t close relatives, and loudly (although not as loud as men) when alone or only in the presence of close relatives.
– It is best to recite the takbirat that are legislated after prayers before the forms of rememberance (adhkar) that are normally recited after the prayer.
– The timings mentioned above are for non-pilgrims. Pilgrims on Hajj follow slightly different timings that are not mentioned in this answer.
And Allah Most High knows best.
References: (1) Bushra al-Karim Fi Masa’il al-Ta`lim (2) Hashiyat al-Shirwani `Ala al-Tuhfa ,