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Putting a bank account on the child’s name

Answered according to Hanafi Fiqh by DaruliftaaZambia.com

Question

I have dollars in the account, but it is in my mums name, we are not allowed to touch it until she dies, so do I have to count it, as it is being shared between my sister and myself.

So somebody asking what to do about zakaat of such money.

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

At the outset, one should understand that a gift becomes complete through Ijaab (offer) and Qabool (acceptance) and by taking possession of the item.  [i]

You state that you have money in your mother’s account, but you do not have access to it. Your mother has not relinquished her rights from the money in the account.

If your mother merely puts money in her account with the intention of the children owning it after her demise, then the money belongs to your mother.

If your mother passes away, that money will form part of her estate and will be divided according to the Shariah Law of Succession and Inheritance.

Accordingly, the money belongs to your mother and she is responsible to discharge Zakaat on the amount kept in her account.

If your mother wishes to gift the money to yourself and your sister, she should relinquish all her rights from the money and bestow it upon both of you without stipulating any conditions.

Although it is not necessary to have the transfer of gift in writing, it is advisable to draw up a separate gifting document and signed by the relevant parties.

The gifting document should comprise of two issues:

The offer and the acceptance traditionally known as Ijaab and Qabool respectively.

Once the money has been bestowed and your mother has relinquished all her rights from the money, yourself and your sister will now become the owners of the amount and will now be liable to discharge Zakaat on the money.

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

 

Mufti Muhammad I.V Patel

 

Checked and Approved by
Mufti Nabeel Valli.

Darul Iftaa Mahmudiyyah
Lusaka, Zambia

www.daruliftaazambia.com

[i]

الأصل للشيباني ط قطر (3/ 360)

ولا تجوز الهبة إلا مقسومة مقبوضة

 

بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع (6/ 115)

أَمَّا رُكْنُ الْهِبَةِ فَهُوَ الْإِيجَابُ مِنْ الْوَاهِبِ فَأَمَّا الْقَبُولُ مِنْ الْمَوْهُوبِ لَهُ فَلَيْسَ بِرُكْنٍ اسْتِحْسَانًا وَالْقِيَاسُ أَنْ يَكُونَ رُكْنًا وَهُوَ قَوْلُ زُفَرَ وَفِي قَوْلٍ قَالَ الْقَبْضُ أَيْضًا

 

(فَأَمَّا) الْقَبُولُ وَالْقَبْضُ فَفِعْلُ الْمَوْهُوبِ لَهُ فَلَا يَكُونُ مَقْدُورَ الْوَاهِبِ وَالْمِلْكُ مَحْكُومٌ شَرْعِيٌّ ثَبَتَ جَبْرًا مِنْ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى شَاءَ الْعَبْدُ أَوْ أَبَى فَلَا يُتَصَوَّرُ مَنْعَ النَّفْسِ عَنْهُ أَيْضًا بِخِلَافِ الْبَيْعِ

 

المحيط البرهاني في الفقه النعماني (6/ 238)

قال محمد رحمه الله في «الأصل» : لا تجوز الهبة إلا محوزة مقسومة مقبوضة يستوي فيها الأجنبي والولد إذا كان بالغاً، وقوله لا يجوز: لا يتم الحكم، فالجواز ثابت قبل القبض باتفاق الصحابة، والقبض الذي يتعلق به تمام الهبة؛ القبض بإذن الواهب وذلك نوعان: صريح، ودلالة ففيما إذا أذن له بالقبض صريحاً يصح قبضه في المجلس وبعد الافتراق عن المجلس ويملكه قياساً واستحساناً، ولو نهاه عن القبض بعد الهبة لا يصح قبضه لا في المجلس ولا بعد الافتراق عن المجلس ولا يملكه قياساً، ولو لم يكن أذن له بالقبض ولم ينهه عنه إن قبضه في المجلس صح قبضه استحساناً ولم يصح قبضه قياساً، وإن قبضه بعد الافتراق عن المجلس لا يصح قبضه قياساً واستحساناً،

 

النتف في الفتاوى للسغدي (1/ 512)

قَالَ وَالْهِبَة لَا تصح الا بِخمْس شَرَائِط

ان تكون مَعْلُومَة

ان تكون محوزة

وان تكون مفروغة

وان تكون مَقْبُوضَة عِنْد الْفُقَهَاء وابي عبد الله وَقَالَ مَالك ان وهب بِغَيْر ثَوَاب صَحَّ بِغَيْر قبض وان وهب للثَّواب فَلهُ مَنعه حَتَّى يُثَاب مِنْهَا كَالْبيع وَكَذَلِكَ الصَّدَقَة والعمرى والنخلى والجيس

 

This answer was collected from Daruliftaazambia.com, which serves as a gateway to Darul Iftaa Mahmudiyyah – Lusaka, Zambia.

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