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A theologian asks about forced conversions, prophetic polygamy and the story of al-Garaniq?

Answered as per Hanafi Fiqh by Askimam.org

Quote “I am a Catholic Christian and a theologian. I am presently reading the Quran, in English translation of course, and trying to understand Islam. I have a few questions I have asked other Muslims and they either run away from the questions or react defensively. I must emphasize that these are sincere questions, not an attempt to convert you or a “gotcha” as we say. I am sincerely interested in how you rationalize these things.

1.Do you think that God prefers to spread His religion by force and violence against unbelievers (slavery, forced concubinage, even of married women, ransoms, tribute money, decapitations, etc.); how do you respond to those of us who perceive that He is a God of Love who prefers us to love our enemies, do good to those who despise us, and win others by reason to His religion? Such violence seems to be enshrined in the Koran. I am sincerely trying to understand this. 2. Why did Allah prescribe only 4 wives to every Muslim except Muhammad, who was allowed an infinite number. 3. How do you explain the so-called โ€œSatanic Versesโ€? How could Muhammad be inspired by the devil if he was a true prophet? Why would his words need to be corrected? If he could be deceived once, how do you know he wasn’t deceived later? These are sincere questions and obstacles I see when I study Islam and read the Koran.

I am looking forward to your sincere answers. ” End Quote

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salฤmu โ€˜alaykum wa-rahmatullฤhi wa-barakฤtuh.

Thank you for your inquiry. We will proceed to answer your questions one by one.

1.) Your 1st objection is regarding forced conversion.

a.) The Quran clearly states that there is no forced conversion:

โ€œThere shall be no compulsion in [acceptance of] the religion.โ€ [2:256]

The companion, Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) who was the second leader after the demise of the Prophet invited an old Christian woman to Islam, but she refused saying she was old and close to death [meaning she did not want to revert to Islam]. Upon this, Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) read the verse quoted above: โ€œThere shall be no compulsion in [acceptance of] the religion.โ€ and did not in any way compel or force her inspite being a leader. [i]

Muslims ruled places like Spain and India for hundreds of years. Communities from other countries immigrated to Muslim Spain to escape oppression. Today, the population of both these countries is majority non-Muslim. If conversion by force was sanctioned by the faith or a policy, this would not have been the case.

From the above it is abundantly clear that Islam neither compels nor forces anyone to convert. If someone goes against these clear tenets, then the issue is with them and not with Islam.

b.) We are not sure which translation of the Quran you are reading, but it is important to understand that unlike the Bible, the Quran’s original text and language are preserved and intact.

Therefore for each inquiry we would have to look at the original source to confirm if the translation in fact conforms to the meaning, context and spirit of the verse in its original language.

Since you are a theologian, we’re sure you realize that the academic integrity of any research is compromised by resorting to translations when the original is preserved.

c.) The rules of tafsir [interpretation of the Quran] say that one part of the Quran explains another. It would be dishonest and deceptive to isolate a verse and then proceed to take it out of context by disregarding both the reason and background of its revelation. Likewise, not taking into account other relevant verses and the statements of the Prophet (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) [hadith] that explain that specific verse would also be erroneous and shoddy scholarship.ย 

Unfortunately, it seems you have utterly misunderstood the Quran when you say that โ€œsuch violence seems be enshrined in the Koran.โ€

To make our point clearer, we could give the same illusion about the Bible by quoting only those verses that mention violence or religious compulsion:

โ€œSlaughter the old men, the young men and women, the mothers and children, but do not touch anyone who has the mark. Begin at my sanctuary.โ€ So they began with the old men who were in front of the temple.โ€ [Ezekial 9:6]

โ€œNow go, attack the Amalekites and totally destroy all that belongs to them. Do not spare them; put to death men and women, children and infants, cattle and sheep, camels and donkeys.โ€ [1 Samuel, 15:3]

โ€œNow kill all the boys. And kill every woman who has slept with a man, but save for yourselves every girl who has never slept with a man.โ€ [Numbers 31:17-18]

โ€œThe people of Samaria must bear their guilt, because they have rebelled against their God. They will fall by the sword; their little ones will be dashed to the ground, their pregnant women ripped open.โ€ [ Hosea 13:16]

From Deuteronomy [13: 6-10]:

6: If your very own brother, or your son or daughter, or the wife you love, or your closest friend secretly entices you, saying, โ€œLet us go and worship other godsโ€ (gods that neither you nor your ancestors have known,

7: gods of the peoples around you, whether near or far, from one end of the land to the other),

8: do not yield to them or listen to them. Show them no pity. Do not spare them or shield them.

9: You must certainly put them to death. Your hand must be the first in putting them to death, and then the hands of all the people.

10: Stone them to death, because they tried to turn you away from the Lord your God, who brought you out of Egypt, out of the land of slavery.

From Deuteronomy [17: 2-5]:

2: If a man or woman living among you in one of the towns the Lord gives you is found doing evil in the eyes of the Lord your God in violation of his covenant,

3: and contrary to my command has worshiped other gods, bowing down to them or to the sun or the moon or the stars in the sky,

4: and this has been brought to your attention, then you must investigate it thoroughly. If it is true and it has been proved that this detestable thing has been done in Israel,

5: take the man or woman who has done this evil deed to your city gate and stone that person to death.

d.) If a person goes against the tenets of his faith it should not give others the right to criticize and censure the faith itself โ€“ otherwise the same could be said about other religions:

John Paul II, has acknowledged that the Catholic Church was involved in anti-semitism, the Inquisition, the forced conversions of the people of Africa and Latin America, the Church’s support for the Crusades and so on. [ii]

It is evident that that victims were both Muslims and non-Muslims. Would you then say that your faith is responsible for all these horrific episodes or was it the people that went against the tenets of your faith by justifying such acts from the Bible? Where did โ€œwin others by reason to His religionโ€ go in the above-mentioned events as mentioned in your inquiry?

e.) As mentioned earlier, history bears witness that Muslims conquered Spain (known as Al-Andalus) and ruled it for hundreds of years. If they wanted, just a generation was enough to convert by force so that the succeeding generation would know nothing of its original religion. But that’s not what happened, and Muslims, Christians and Jews lived in relative social harmony during this long period of Muslim rule.

Here’s what happened during the Inquisition, when Christian rule came to Spain:

โ†’ In Valencia, the Muslims had to give a tribute of 40,000 ducats so that they would not be persecuted. [iii]

โ†’ In the year 1499, when Archbishop of Toledo took charge of the Granada mission as part of the Inquisitions and a program of forced conversions, mass baptisms, and a violent persecution of the Muslims followed. Adherence to Islamic customs became a punishable offence. [iv]

โ†’ This Archbishop, Cisernos, starting sending Muslims who would not convert to prisons where they were treated with what his own hagiographer describes as โ€œmethods that were not correctโ€ until they agreed to convert.

โ†’ The Archbishop boasted to the then Pope Alexander IV, that 3,000 Muslims had converted in a single day. They were forcing them to convert with such methods that they did not even have time to take them to baptismal font, instead, they had to splash the water on them. His methodology can best be described in his own words: โ€œIf the infidels [by infidels he is referring to Muslims] couldn’t be attracted to the road to salvation they had to be dragged to it.โ€ [v]

โ†’ In the town of Jatvia, hundreds of Muslims were dragged to the main cathedral and ordered to choose between baptism or death.

โ†’ In Gandia, Muslims were given the option to choose between baptism or having their throats cut. So many Muslims were forcefully baptized that they had to be sprinkled with water from tree branches dipped into irrigation canals.

โ†’ In the town of Malaga, Muslims were tied to stakes and killed with cane spears in a cruel variant of the jousting competition known as the juego de canas. In addition, virtually the entire remaining population of Muslims in this town was enslaved or given as โ€œgiftsโ€ to Christian rulers.

โ†’ For all their achievements, the then monarchs of Spain, Ferdinand and Isabella were hailed as heroes and rewarded by the pope with the title of los reyes catolicos โ€“ the Catholic Monarchs.

โ†’ Between 1609 and 1614, King Philip III ordered the expulsion of the entire Muslim population of Spain which had by now been forcefully converted (estimated at 350,000 men, women and children over the age of seven). They were removed forcibly from their own homes and country and their assets seized. Children under seven were separated from their families and not allowed to go with their fathers and mothers. That makes it the largest removal of a civilian population in European history and larger than Spain’s previous expulsion of the Jews. All this was the idea of a religious leader, the Archbishop of Valencia, Juan de Ribera. [vi]

2.) Your second question is regarding the multiple wives of the Prophet (salallahu alayhi wa sallam). There is not only precedent, but wisdom in this. We will suffice with mentioning just a few points for your consideration [vii] [viii]:

โ†’ His’ (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) entire youth was spent with a widow, much older than him, Khadijah (may Allah be pleased with her). Except for Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) all of the wives were widows, and polygamy only came into the picture after the age of 53. The fact that the multiple marriages only came in the last 10 years of his’ (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) life would lead any open-minded, impartial reader to realize that they were not done to fulfill any carnal desires.

โ†’ The Prophet (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) married women from different tribes to establish peaceful relations so that Islam would spread by them coming to know his (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) true, noble, and pure character.

โ†’ Muslims were limited to four because of the fear of injustice whereas there was no such fear in terms of the Prophet’s (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) treatment towards his wives.

โ†’ Just as information about his external activities was reported by the Companions (may Allah be pleased with them), similarly information about his domestic life was reported by his wives. Since spouses see and know each other’s nature unlike anyone else, multiple accounts of the prophetic life inside the home were needed. This information also needed to come from multiple sources (i.e. to reach a degree known as tawatur: multiple transmissions with the highest degree of confirmation). Since the minimum set for this is at 10, that is why the number of his wives reached 10. The wisdom of this is even more self-evident when we see that approximately half of the faith was conveyed through the wives (may Allah be pleased with them).

โ†’ By virtue of being in the Prophet’s (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) company, the wives (may Allah be pleased with them) would learn a lot and in turn become teachers of the Muslim community. As an example: Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her) was a teacher to 200 companions and she narrated 2,210 hadith. Umm Salamah (may Allah be pleased with her) had issued enough legal rulings that they could be compiled in a separate book and she narrated 368 hadith.

โ†’ It is also strange that this question is not raised about other Prophets (peace be upon them) whom the Bible itself records as having multiple wives. In the Bible it states the following about Sulayman (peace be upon him) (Solomon), He had seven hundred wives of royal birth and three hundred concubines…[1 Kings 11:3]. Did everybody in his kingdom have 700 wives and 300 concubines?

โ†’ Likewise the Bible states about Dawud (peace be upon him) (David), that he had 6 wives in Hebron and that after he left Hebron, he took more concubines and wives in Jerusalem.ย  [2 Samuel 3:2-5] and [2 Samuel 5:13] Again the question arises, did everybody in his kingdom have 6+ wives and concubines?

3.) Your 3rd question refers to a fabricated event in history that has been coined by a missionary as โ€œSatanic Verses.โ€ This question stems from a lack of understanding and is a regurgitation of what has been repeated by ignorant people who think these are verses from the Quran.

In reality, there are no such verses mentioned in the Quran. In fact, if you find them feel free to send them to us.

Now in all probability you are referring to a spurious and contrived incident recorded in some history books called โ€œThe cranesโ€ [al-Garaniq] where some verses containing polytheism were allegedly recited to placate the disbelievers.

Before we clarify this, understand that Muslims have entire books devoted to forged hadith [prophetic statements]. Everything was meticulously compiled including the people who narrated these statements so later generations can easily tell who the person narrated it and what credibility they had. You see, any statement of the Prophet (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) needs to have a sanad (chain of transmission) whose authenticity, or the lack thereof is known.

So the very fact that anyone knows about these alleged โ€œversesโ€ is because they come from our own history books. This in fact is proof of the transparency of Islam, where scholars recorded all kinds of information no matter how preposterous a lie it was.

To give you an example of why we do this: Sometimes if you walk into a store, they have some fake currency displayed or bad cheques that didn’t clear the bank on the wall as a sign of what went wrong. This is obviously not there because they consider it an award, rather itโ€™s to make the store clerk aware of fake and fraudulent ways of payment. It is also to make the customers aware that the store will be on the lookout for fake currency. Similarly, scholars recorded all events with chains of transmissions wherever available as a guidance and caution for current and future generations. This way we can easily prove or disprove the veracity of events that took place at that time.

Now keeping all the above in mind, letโ€™s look at the status of those narrations (which as we said above are not part of the Quran, but come in our history books):

a.) Mufti Shafi (may Allah have mercy on him), one of the expert scholars of the latter times has clearly stated that the event of al-Garaniq is not established from any authentic narration. In fact, some scholars have written that this is a clear fabrication of heretics. [ix]

b.) From the earlier times, the hadith specialist, al-‘Ayni (may Allah have mercy on him) has analyzed the chains of narrations concerning this event and declared them all to be defective and unacceptable according to the science of evaluating hadith. [x]

c.) Imam al-Shawkani (may Allah have mercy on him), in his commentary on the Quran [tafsir] has stated that this event is false and not established in any way. He has also narrated the rulings of a number of other expert scholars in Quran and hadith [xi]:

Al-Bazzar (may Allah have mercy on him): We don’t know of this narration coming to us in any uninterrupted chain of transmission back to the Prophet (salallahu alayhi wa sallam).

Al-Bayhaqi (may Allah have mercy on him): This event is not authentic and proceeded to show that the narrators are discredited and unreliable.

Ibn Khuzaymah (may Allah have mercy on him): This is a fabrication of heretics.

Ibn Kathir (may Allah have mercy on him): I have not seen this event narrated from any authentic connected chain. Rather they are all mursal (the generation of the Companions is missing from all the chains of transmission).

Now you have leading authorities in tafsir [interpretation of the Quran] and hadith [statements of the Prophet โ€“ salallahu alayhi wa sallam] making it clear that not only are the narrators discredited and unreliable but that one entire generation [the Companions] that would have been eye-witnesses to the alleged event missing from all the chains of transmission.

c.) One of the main sources where this story is found is al-Tarikh [a history book] of al-Tabari (may Allah have mercy on him) and he himself has clearly stated in the introduction [xii][xiii]:

โ€œLet him who examines this book of mine know that I have relied, as regards everything I mention therein which I stipulate to be described by me, solely upon what has been transmitted to me by way of reports which I cite therein and traditions which I ascribe to their narrators, to the exclusion of what may be apprehended by rational argument or deduced by the human mind, except in very few cases. This is because knowledge of the reports of men of the past and of contemporaneous views of men of the present do not reach the one who has not witnessed them nor lived in their times except through the accounts of reporters and the transmission of transmitters, to the exclusion of rational deduction and mental inference. Hence, if I mention in this book a report about some men of the past, which the reader of listener finds objectionable or worthy of censure because he can see no aspect of truth nor any factual substance therein, let him know that this is not to be attributed to us but to those who transmitted it to us and we have merely passed this on as it has been passed on to us.โ€

So the purpose of relating this event was not to show that it actually took place, but just to relate all stories and events that came down to the historians by whatever narrations and chains โ€“ and that included fabricators, liars and those who have been declared weak.

d.) The fact that the disbelievers of Makkah did not raise an issue about this event is also strong evidence that this event never took place. They raised a big issue about the Night-Journey of Rasulullah (salallahu alayhi wa sallam). Surely, had this event actually occurred, this was something that they would not have neglected to seize upon, and Islamic sources would have faithfully recorded that โ€“ just like they did everything else โ€“ like the objection of the disbelievers to the Night-Journey.

e.) Even Orientalists, such as J. Burton have concluded that this event has no historical basis and is likely, a later fabrication. [xiv]

In conclusion, all we request from you as a theologian is that in your study of the Quran and Islam you should apply the same fairness and impartiality that you would want and expect from anyone studying Christianity.

Just as you would not want anyone studying Christianity to segregate those verses we mentioned above, neither should you do the same if you sincerely wish to understand the Quran and Islam.

Why don’t you judge others in the same way you like to be judged? Doesn’t the Bible say:

ย โ€œFor in the same way you judge others, you will be judged, and with the measure you use, it will be measured to you. Why do you look at the speck of sawdust in your brotherโ€™s eye and pay no attention to the plank in your own eye?ย  How can you say to your brother, โ€˜Let me take the speck out of your eye,โ€™ when all the time there is a plank in your own eye?โ€ [Matthew, 7:2-4]

In conclusion, we appreciate your sincerity. This is a condition of the heart and is best known to yourself and God. God appreciates the honest quest of His sincere slaves and guides them to eternal salvation.

We sincerely urge you to focus on the path of your eternal salvation which we believe is Islam. Let your rationale prevail over your emotions and follow the quest of the ultimate truth.

And Allah Taโ€™ฤla Knows Best

Sohail ibn Arif,
Student Darul Iftaa
Chicago, USA

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

ู…ุนุงุฑู ุงู„ู‚ุฑุงู† ูก/ ูฆูกูฆ โ€“ ูฆูกูง [i]

Beck, Edward L. God Underneath: Spiritual Memoirs of a Catholic Priest. 2002ย  [ii]

Pendrill, Colin. Spain 1474-1700: The Triumphs and Tribulations of Empire. Heinemann. 2002 [iii]

Rawlings, Helen. The Spanish Inquisition. Blackwell Publishing. 2006. [iv]

ย Don, Patricia Lopes. Bonfires of Culture. University of Oklahoma Press. 2010. [v]

Carr, Matthew. Blood and Faith: The Purging of Muslim Spain [vi]

ู…ุนุงุฑู ุงู„ู‚ุฑุงู†ุŒ ูง/ ูกูฅูง ูˆย  ูกูฉูฃ – ูกูฉูคย  [vii]

ุฅู†ู…ุง ู…ู†ุน ุบูŠุฑู‡ ู…ู† ุงู„ุฒูŠุงุฏุฉ ุนู„ู‰ ุฃุฑุจุน ุฎูˆูุงู‹ ู…ู† ุนุฏู… ุงู„ุนุฏู„ุŒ ูƒู…ุง ุฃุดุงุฑุช ุฅู„ูŠู‡ ุขูŠุฉ ููŽุฅูู†ู’ ุฎููู’ุชูู…ู’ ุฃูŽู„ู‘ูŽุง ุชูŽุนู’ุฏูู„ููˆุง ููŽูˆูŽุงุญูุฏูŽุฉู‹ [viii]

ย ูˆู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุนู„ุฉ ู…ุฑุชูุนุฉ ููŠ ุญู‚ู‡ ุตู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ูˆุณู„ู…

ูˆู‚ุฏ ุฐูƒุฑ ุดูŠุฎ ู…ุดุงูŠุฎู†ุง ุญูƒูŠู… ุงู„ุฃู…ุฉ ุงู„ุชู‡ุงู†ูˆูŠ ู‚ุฏุณ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุณุฑู‡ ุญูƒู…ุฉ ุฃุฎุฑู‰ ููŠ ูƒุซุฑุฉ ุฃุฒูˆุงุฌู‡ ุตู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ูˆุณู„ู…ุŒ ูˆู‡ูŠ ุฃู†ู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ุงู„ุตู„ุงุฉ ูˆุงู„ุณู„ุงู… ู‚ุฏ ุจุนุซ ุฅู„ู‰ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุนุงู„ู… ู„ูŠูƒูˆู† ุฃุณูˆุฉ ุญุณู†ุฉ ููŠ ูƒู„ ุดูŠุกุŒ ูˆู„ูŠู‚ุชุฏูŠ ุจู‡ ุฃู…ุชู‡ ููŠ ูƒู„ ู†ุงุญูŠุฉ ู…ู† ู†ูˆุงุญูŠ ุงู„ุญูŠุงุฉ. ูˆูƒุงู† ูŠุฌุจ ู„ุฐู„ูƒ ุฃู† ู„ุง ูŠุฎูู‰ ุนู„ู‰ ุฃู…ุชู‡ ุดูŠุก ู…ู† ุญูŠุงุชู‡ ุงู„ูุฑุฏูŠุฉ

ูˆุงู„ุงุฌุชู…ุงุนูŠุฉุŒ ูˆุฃู† ุชุทู„ุน ุงู„ุฃู…ุฉ ุนู„ู‰ ุฃุญูˆุงู„ ุจูŠุชู‡ ูˆุฎู„ูˆุชู‡ ุจุฐู„ูƒ ุงู„ู‚ุทุน ูˆุจุชู„ูƒ ุงู„ุงุณุชูุงุถุฉ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุงุทู„ุนุช ุจู‡ุง ุนู„ู‰ ุฃุญูˆุงู„ู‡ ุฎุงุฑุฌ ุงู„ุจูŠุช. ูˆุฅู† ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุฃุญูˆุงู„ ู„ุง ุชู†ูƒุดู ุนู„ู‰ ุฃุญุฏ ุฅู„ุง ุจุฃุฒูˆุงุฌู‡ ุตู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ูˆุณู„ู…ุŒ ูˆู„ุฐู„ูƒ ุจู„ุบ ุนุฏุฏ ุฃุฒูˆุงุฌู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ุงู„ุณู„ุงู… ุจุนุฏ ุฎุฏูŠุฌุฉ ุงู„ูƒุจุฑู‰ ุนุดุฑุฉ ุฃุฒูˆุงุฌุŒ ูุฅู† ุงู„ุนุดุฑ ุฃู‚ู„ ุนุฏุฏ ุงู„ุชูˆุงุชุฑุŒ ูˆู„ู…ุง ุจู„ุบ ุนุฏุฏ ู†ุณุงุฆู‡ ุฅู„ู‰ ุงู„ุนุดุฑุฉ ู†ู‡ุงู‡ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุชุนุงู„ู‰ ุนู† ุงู„ุฒูŠุงุฏุฉ ุนู„ู‰ ู‡ุฐุง ุงู„ุนุฏุฏุŒ ูƒู…ุง ู‚ูŠู„ ููŠ ุชูุณูŠุฑ ู‚ูˆู„ู‡ ุชุนุงู„ู‰: {ู„ูŽุง ูŠูŽุญูู„ู‘ู ู„ูŽูƒูŽ ุงู„ู†ู‘ูุณูŽุงุกู ู…ูู†ู’ ุจูŽุนู’ุฏู}. . . ุฅู„ุฎ ูˆุฑุงุฌุน ุงู„ุชูุณูŠุฑ ุงู„ูƒุจูŠุฑ…
ูˆู…ู…ุง ูŠุคูŠุฏ ุฐู„ูƒ ุฃู†ู‡ ุตู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ูˆุณู„ู… ู„ู… ูŠู‚ุถ ุดุจุงุจู‡ ูˆูุชูˆุชู‡ ุฅู„ุง ู…ุน ุงู…ุฑุฃุฉ ุซูŠุจุฉ ุฃุณู† ู…ู†ู‡ ุจูƒุซูŠุฑุŒ ู…ุน ู…ุง ุนุฑุถุช ุนู„ูŠู‡ ู…ู† ุตูุงูŠุง ุฃุจูƒุงุฑ ุงู„ุนุฑุจุŒ ูˆู„ู… ุชูƒุซุฑ ุฃุฒูˆุงุฌู‡ ุฅู„ุง ุจุนุฏ ู…ุง ุจู„ุบ ุงู„ุซุงู„ุซ ูˆุงู„ุฎู…ุณูŠู† ู…ู† ุนู…ุฑู‡. ูˆูƒุงู†ุช ูƒู„ู‡ู† ุซูŠุจุงุชุŒ ุณูˆู‰ ุนุงุฆุดุฉ ุฑุถูŠ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู†ู‡ุง. ุฃูู‡ู„ ูŠูุนู„ ุฐู„ูƒ ู…ู† ู„ุง ูŠุฑูŠุฏ ุฅู„ุง ู‚ุถุงุก ุงู„ุดู‡ูˆุฉ ูˆุชุณูƒูŠู† ุงู„ุดุจู‚ุŸ ูƒู„ุง! ุซู… ูƒู„ุง! ูˆุฅู†ู…ุง ูƒุงู† ุบุฑุถู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ุงู„ุณู„ุงู… ุฃู† ุชุจู„ุบ ุฃุญูˆุงู„ ุจูŠุชู‡ ุฅู„ู‰ ุงู„ุฃู…ุฉ ุจุชู„ูƒ ุงู„ุงุณุชูุงุถุฉ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุจู„ุบุช ุจู‡ุง ุฃุญูˆุงู„ู‡ ุฎุงุฑุฌ ุงู„ุจูŠุชุŒ ูˆู„ู… ูŠูƒู† ุฐู„ูƒ ุฅู„ุง ุจุฃู† ู„ุง ุชู‚ู„ ู†ุณุงุกู‡ ู…ู† ุนุดุฑุฉ.
ูˆู„ุฐู„ูƒ ู†ุฑู‰ ุฃู† ู†ุญูˆุงู‹ ู…ู† ู†ุตู ุงู„ุฏูŠู† ู„ู… ูŠุจู„ุบู†ุง ุฅู„ุง ุจูˆุงุณุทุฉ ุฃุฒูˆุงุฌู‡ ุตู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ูˆุณู„ู….

ย ุชูƒู…ู„ุฉ ูุชุญ ุงู„ู…ู„ู‡ู…ุŒ ูƒุชุงุจ ุงู„ุฑุถุงุนุŒ ุงู„ุญูƒู…ุฉ ููŠ ูƒุซุฑุฉ ุฃุฒูˆุงุฌู‡ ุตู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ูˆุณู„ู…ุŒุต. ูกูกูฃ – ูกูกูค

ู…ุนุงุฑู ุงู„ู‚ุฑุงู†ุŒ ูฆ/ ูขูงูง [ix]

ย ูˆุฌู…ูŠุน ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู…ุณุงู†ูŠุฏ ุงู„ุซู„ุงุซุฉ ู„ุง ูŠุญุชุฌ ุจุดูŠุก ู…ู†ู‡ุง: ุฃู…ุง ุงู„ุฅุณู†ุงุฏ ุงู„ุฃูˆู„: ูˆุฅู† ูƒุงู† ุฑุฌุงู„ู‡ ุซู‚ุงุช ูุฅู† ุงู„ุฑุงูˆูŠ ุดูƒ ููŠู‡ [x]

ย ูƒู…ุง ุฃุฎุจุฑ ุนู† ู†ูุณู‡ุŒ ูุฅู…ุง ุดูƒ ููŠ ุฑูุนู‡ุŒ ููŠูƒูˆู† ู…ูˆู‚ูˆูุง. ูˆููŠ ูˆุตู„ู‡ ููŠูƒูˆู† ู…ุฑุณู„ุงุŒ ูˆูƒู„ุงู‡ู…ุง ู„ูŠุณ ุจุญุฌุฉ ุฎุตูˆุตุง ููŠู…ุง ููŠู‡ ู‚ุฏุญ ููŠ ุญู‚ ุงู„ุฃู†ุจูŠุงุกุŒ ุนู„ูŠู‡ู… ุงู„ุตู„ุงุฉ ูˆุงู„ุณู„ุงู…ุŒ ุจู„ ู„ูˆ ุฌุฒู… ุงู„ุซู‚ุฉ ุจุฑูุนู‡ ูˆูˆุตู„ู‡ ุญู…ู„ู†ุงู‡ ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ุบู„ุท ูˆุงู„ูˆู‡ู…ุŒ ูˆุฃู…ุง ุงู„ุฅุณู†ุงุฏ ุงู„ุซุงู†ูŠ: ูุฅู† ู…ุญู…ุฏ ุจู† ุงู„ุณุงุฆุจ ุงู„ูƒู„ุจูŠ ุถุนูŠู ุจุงู„ุงุชูุงู‚ุŒ ู…ู†ุณูˆุจ ุฅู„ู‰ ุงู„ูƒุฐุจุŒ ูˆู‚ุฏ ูุณุฑ ุงู„ูƒู„ุจูŠ ููŠ ุฑูˆุงูŠุชู‡ ุงู„ุบุฑุงู†ู‚ุฉ ุงู„ุนู„ู‰: ุจุงู„ู…ู„ุงุฆูƒุฉุŒ ู„ุง ุจุขู„ู‡ุฉ ุงู„ู…ุดุฑูƒูŠู†ุŒ ูƒู…ุง ูŠู‚ูˆู„ูˆู†: ุฅู† ุงู„ู…ู„ุงุฆูƒุฉ ุจู†ุงุช ุงู„ู„ู‡ุŒ ูˆูƒุฐุจูˆุง ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ูุฑุฏ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุฐู„ูƒ ุนู„ูŠู‡ู… ุจู‚ูˆู„ู‡: {ุฃู„ูƒู… ุงู„ุฐูƒุฑ ูˆู„ู‡ ุงู„ุฃู†ุซู‰} (ุงู„ู†ุฌู…: 12) . ูุนู„ู‰ ู‡ุฐุง ูู„ุนู„ู‡ ูƒุงู† ู‚ุฑุขู†ุง ุซู… ู†ุณุฎ ู„ุชูˆู‡ู… ุงู„ู…ุดุฑูƒูŠู† ุจุฐู„ูƒ ู…ุฏุญ ุขู„ู‡ุชู‡ู…. ูˆุฃู…ุง ุงู„ุฅุณู†ุงุฏ ุงู„ุซุงู„ุซ: ูุฅู† ู…ุญู…ุฏ ุจู† ุณุนุฏ ู‡ูˆ ุงู„ุนูˆููŠุŒ ูˆู‡ูˆ ุงุจู† ุณุนุฏ ุจู† ู…ุญู…ุฏ ุจู† ุงู„ุญุณู† ุงุจู† ุนุทูŠุฉ ุงู„ุนูˆููŠุŒ ุชูƒู„ู… ููŠู‡ ุงู„ุฎุทูŠุจุŒ ูู‚ุงู„: ูƒุงู† ู„ูŠู†ุง ููŠ ุงู„ุญุฏูŠุซุŒ ูˆุฃุจูˆู‡ ุณุนุฏ ุจู† ู…ุญู…ุฏ ุจู† ุงู„ุญุณู† ุจู† ุนุทูŠุฉุŒ ู‚ุงู„ ููŠู‡ ุฃุญู…ุฏ: ู„ู… ูŠูƒู† ู…ู…ู† ูŠุณุชุฃู‡ู„ ุฃู† ูŠูƒุชุจ ุนู†ู‡ุŒ ูˆู„ุง ูƒุงู† ู…ูˆุถุนุง ู„ุฐู„ูƒุŒ ูˆุนู… ุฃุจูŠู‡: ู‡ูˆ ุงู„ุญุณูŠู† ุจู† ุงู„ุญุณู† ุจู† ุนุทูŠุฉุŒ ุถุนูู‡ ุงุจู† ู…ุนูŠู† ูˆุงู„ู†ุณุงุฆูŠ ูˆุงุจู† ุญุจุงู† ูˆุบูŠุฑู‡ู…ุŒ ูˆุงู„ุญุณู† ุจู† ุนุทูŠุฉ ุถุนูู‡ ุงู„ุจุฎุงุฑูŠ ูˆุฃุจูˆ ุญุงุชู…ุŒ ูˆู‡ุฐู‡ ุณู„ุณู„ุฉ ุถุนูุงุกุŒ ูˆู„ุนู„ ุนุทูŠุฉ ุงู„ุนูˆููŠ ุณู…ุนู‡ ู…ู† ุงู„ูƒู„ุจูŠ ูุฅู†ู‡ ูƒุงู† ูŠุฑูˆูŠ ุนู†ู‡ ูˆูŠูƒู†ูŠู‡ ุจุฃุจูŠ ุณุนูŠุฏ ู„ุถุนูู‡ุŒ ูˆูŠูˆู‡ู… ุฃู†ู‡: ุฃุจูˆ ุณุนูŠุฏ ุงู„ุฎุฏุฑูŠ. ูˆู‚ุงู„ ุนูŠุงุถ: ู‡ุฐุง ุญุฏูŠุซ ู„ู… ูŠุฎุฑุฌู‡ ุฃุญุฏ ู…ู† ุฃู‡ู„ ุงู„ุตุญุฉ. ูˆู„ุง ุฑูˆุงุฉ ุซู‚ุฉ ุจุณู†ุฏ ุณู„ูŠู… ู…ุชุตู„ุŒ ูˆุฅู†ู…ุง ุฃูˆู„ุน ุจู‡ ูˆุจู…ุซู„ู‡ ุงู„ู…ูุณุฑูˆู†ุŒ ูˆุงู„ู…ุคุฑุฎูˆู† ุงู„ู…ูˆู„ุนูˆู† ุจูƒู„ ู‚ุฑูŠุจุŒ ุงู„ู…ุชู„ู‚ู†ูˆู† ู…ู† ุงู„ุตุญู ูƒู„ ุตุญูŠุญ ูˆุณู‚ูŠู…. ู‚ู„ุช: ุงู„ุฃู…ุฑ ูƒุฐู„ูƒุŒ ูุฅู† ุบุงู„ุจ ู‡ุคู„ุงุก ู…ุซู„ ุงู„ุทุฑู‚ูŠุฉ ูˆุงู„ู‚ุตุงุต ูˆู„ูŠุณ ุนู†ุฏู‡ู… ุชู…ูŠูŠุฒุŒ ูŠุฎุจุทูˆู† ุฎุจุท ุนุดูˆุงุกุŒ ูˆูŠู…ุดูˆู† ููŠ ุธู„ู…ุฉ ุธู„ู…ุงุกุŒ ูˆูƒูŠู ูŠู‚ุงู„ ู…ุซู„ ู‡ุฐุง ูˆุงู„ุฅุฌู…ุงุน ู…ู†ุนู‚ุฏ ุนู„ู‰ ุนุตู…ุฉ ุงู„ู†ุจูŠ ุตู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ูˆุณู„ู… ูˆู†ุฒุงู‡ุชู‡ ุนู† ู…ุซู„ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุฑุฐูŠู„ุฉุŸ ูˆู„ูˆ ูˆู‚ุนุช ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู‚ุตุฉ ู„ูˆุฌุฏุช ู‚ุฑูŠุด ุนู„ู‰ ุงู„ู…ุณู„ู…ูŠู† ุจู‡ุง ุงู„ุตูˆู„ุฉุŒ ูˆู„ุฃู‚ุงู…ุช ุนู„ูŠู‡ู… ุงู„ูŠู‡ูˆุฏ ุจู‡ุง ุงู„ุญุฌุฉุŒ ูƒู…ุง ุนู„ู… ู…ู† ุนุงุฏุฉ ุงู„ู…ู†ุงูู‚ูŠู† ูˆุนู†ุงุฏ ุงู„ู…ุดุฑูƒูŠู†ุŒ ูƒู…ุง ูˆู‚ุน ููŠ ู‚ุตุฉ ุงู„ุฅุณุฑุงุก ุญุชู‰ ูƒุงู†ุช ููŠ ุฐู„ูƒ ู„ุจุนุถ ุงู„ุถุนูุงุก ุฑุฏุฉ

ย ย  ุนู…ุฏุฉ ุงู„ู‚ุงุฑูŠุŒ ูง/ ูกู ู  – ูกู ูก

[xi]ย  ูˆู„ู… ูŠุตุญ ุดูŠุก ู…ู† ู‡ุฐุงุŒ ูˆู„ุง ุซุจุช ุจูˆุฌู‡ ู…ู† ุงู„ูˆุฌูˆู‡ุŒ ูˆู…ุน ุนุฏู… ุตุญุชู‡ ุจู„ ุจุทู„ุงู†ู‡ ูู‚ุฏ ุฏูุนู‡ ุงู„ู…ุญู‚ู‚ูˆู† ุจูƒุชุงุจ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุณุจุญุงู†ู‡ุŒ ู‚ุงู„ ุงู„ู„ู‡: ูˆู„ูˆ ุชู‚ูˆู„ ุนู„ูŠู†ุง ุจุนุถ ุงู„ุฃู‚ุงูˆูŠู„- ู„ุฃุฎุฐู†ุง ู…ู†ู‡ ุจุงู„ูŠู…ูŠู†- ุซู… ู„ู‚ุทุนู†ุง ู…ู†ู‡ ุงู„ูˆุชูŠู† ยซ3ยป ูˆู‚ูˆู„ู‡: ูˆู…ุง ูŠู†ุทู‚ ุนู† ุงู„ู‡ูˆู‰ ยซ4ยป ูˆู‚ูˆู„ู‡: ูˆู„ูˆู„ุง ุฃู† ุซุจุชู†ุงูƒ ู„ู‚ุฏ ูƒุฏุช ุชุฑูƒู† ุฅู„ูŠู‡ู… ยซ5ยป ูู†ูู‰ ุงู„ู…ู‚ุงุฑุจุฉ ู„ู„ุฑูƒูˆู† ูุถู„ุง ุนู† ุงู„ุฑูƒูˆู†. ู‚ุงู„ ุงู„ุจุฒุงุฑ: ู‡ุฐุง ุญุฏูŠุซ ู„ุง ู†ุนู„ู…ู‡ ูŠุฑูˆู‰ ุนู† ุงู„ู†ุจูŠ ุตู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ูˆุณู„ู… ุจุฅุณู†ุงุฏ ู…ุชุตู„.

ูˆู‚ุงู„ ุงู„ุจูŠู‡ู‚ูŠ: ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู‚ุตุฉ ุบูŠุฑ ุซุงุจุชุฉ ู…ู† ุฌู‡ุฉ ุงู„ู†ู‚ู„ุŒ ุซู… ุฃุฎุฐ ูŠุชูƒู„ู… ุฃู† ุฑูˆุงุฉ ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู‚ุตุฉ ู…ุทุนูˆู† ููŠู‡ู…. ูˆู‚ุงู„ ุฅู…ุงู… ุงู„ุฃุฆู…ุฉ ุงุจู† ุฎุฒูŠู…ุฉ: ุฅู† ู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ู‚ุตุฉ ู…ู† ูˆุถุน ุงู„ุฒู†ุงุฏู‚ุฉ. ู‚ุงู„ ุงู„ู‚ุงุถูŠ ุนูŠุงุถ ููŠ ยซุงู„ุดูุงยป : ุฅู† ุงู„ุฃู…ุฉ ุฃุฌู…ุนุช ููŠู…ุง ุทุฑูŠู‚ู‡ ุงู„ุจู„ุงุบ ุฃู†ู‡ ู…ุนุตูˆู… ููŠู‡ ู…ู† ุงู„ุฅุฎุจุงุฑ ุนู† ุดูŠุก ุจุฎู„ุงู ู…ุง ู‡ูˆ ุนู„ูŠู‡ุŒ ู„ุง ู‚ุตุฏุง ูˆู„ุง ุนู…ุฏุง ูˆู„ุง ุณู‡ูˆุง ูˆู„ุง ุบู„ุทุง. ู‚ุงู„ ุงุจู† ูƒุซูŠุฑ: ู‚ุฏ ุฐูƒุฑ ูƒุซูŠุฑ ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ูุณุฑูŠู† ู‡ุงู‡ู†ุง ู‚ุตุฉ ุงู„ุบุฑุงู†ูŠู‚ุŒ ูˆู…ุง ูƒุงู† ู…ู† ุฑุฌูˆุน ูƒุซูŠุฑ ู…ู† ุงู„ู…ู‡ุงุฌุฑูŠู† ุฅู„ู‰ ุฃุฑุถ ุงู„ุญุจุดุฉ ุธู†ุง ู…ู†ู‡ู… ุฃู† ู…ุดุฑูƒูŠ ู‚ุฑูŠุด ู‚ุฏ ุฃุณู„ู…ูˆุงุŒ ูˆู„ูƒู†ู‡ุง ู…ู† ุทุฑู‚ ูƒู„ู‡ุง ู…ุฑุณู„ุฉุŒ ูˆู„ู… ุฃุฑู‡ุง ู…ุณู†ุฏุฉ ู…ู† ูˆุฌู‡ ุตุญูŠุญ.

ูุชุญ ุงู„ู‚ุฏูŠุฑ ู„ู„ุดูˆูƒุงู†ูŠุŒ ูฃ/ ูฅูคูฆ

Khalidi, Tarif. Arabic Historical Thought in the Classical Period. Cambridge University Press. 1994 [xii]

ูˆู„ูŠุนู„ู… ุงู„ู†ุงุธุฑ ููŠ ูƒุชุงุจู†ุง ู‡ุฐุง ุฃู† ุงุนุชู…ุงุฏูŠ ููŠ ูƒู„ ู…ุง ุฃุญุถุฑุช ุฐูƒุฑู‡ ููŠู‡ ู…ู…ุง ุดุฑุทุช ุฃู†ูŠ ุฑุงุณู…ู‡ ููŠู‡ ุฅู†ู…ุง ู‡ูˆ ุนู„ู‰ ู…ุงย  [xiii]

ุฑูˆูŠุช ู…ู† ุงู„ุฃุฎุจุงุฑ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุฃู†ุง ุฐุงูƒุฑู‡ุง ููŠู‡ ูˆุงู„ุขุซุงุฑ ุงู„ุชูŠ ุฃู†ุง ู…ุณู†ุฏู‡ุง ุฅู„ู‰ ุฑูˆุงุชู‡ุง ููŠู‡ ุฏูˆู† ู…ุง ุฃุฏุฑูƒ ุจุญุฌุฌ ุงู„ุนู‚ูˆู„ ูˆุงุณุชู†ุจุท ุจููƒุฑ ุงู„ู†ููˆุณ ุฅู„ุง ุงู„ูŠุณูŠุฑ ุงู„ู‚ู„ูŠู„ ู…ู†ู‡ ุฅุฐ ูƒุงู† ุงู„ุนู„ู… ุจู…ุง ูƒุงู† ู…ู† ุฃุฎุจุงุฑ ุงู„ู…ุงุถูŠู† ูˆู…ุง ู‡ูˆ ูƒุงุฆู† ู…ู† ุฃู†ุจุงุก ุงู„ุญุงุฏุซูŠู† ุบูŠุฑ ูˆุงุตู„ ุฅู„ู‰ ู…ู† ู„ู… ูŠุดุงู‡ุฏู‡ู… ูˆู„ู… ูŠุฏุฑูƒ ุฒู…ุงู†ู‡ู… ุฅู„ุง ุจุฅุฎุจุงุฑ ุงู„ู…ุฎุจุฑูŠู† ูˆู†ู‚ู„ ุงู„ู†ุงู‚ู„ูŠู† ุฏูˆู† ุงู„ุงุณุชุฎุฑุงุฌ ุจุงู„ุนู‚ูˆู„ ูˆุงู„ุงุณุชู†ุจุงุท ุจููƒุฑ ุงู„ู†ููˆุณ ูู…ุง ูŠูƒู† ููŠ ูƒุชุงุจูŠ ู‡ุฐุง ู…ู† ุฎุจุฑ ุฐูƒุฑู†ุงู‡ ุนู† ุจุนุถ ุงู„ู…ุงุถูŠู† ู…ู…ุง ูŠุณุชู†ูƒุฑู‡ ู‚ุงุฑุฆู‡ ุฃูˆ ูŠุณุชุดู†ุนู‡ ุณุงู…ุนู‡ ู…ู† ุฃุฌู„ ุฃู†ู‡ ู„ู… ูŠุนุฑู ู„ู‡ ูˆุฌู‡ุง ููŠ ุงู„ุตุญุฉ ูˆู„ุง ู…ุนู†ู‰ ููŠ ุงู„ุญู‚ูŠู‚ุฉ ูู„ูŠุนู„ู… ุฃู†ู‡ ู„ู… ูŠุคุช ููŠ ุฐู„ูƒ ู…ู† ู‚ุจู„ู†ุง ูˆุฅู†ู…ุง ุฃุชูŠ ู…ู† ู‚ุจู„ ุจุนุถ ู†ุงู‚ู„ูŠู‡ ุฅู„ูŠู†ุง ูˆุฃู†ุง ุฅู†ู…ุง ุฃุฏูŠู†ุง ุฐู„ูƒ ุนู„ู‰ ู†ุญูˆ ู…ุง ุฃุฏูŠ ุฅู„ูŠู†ุง
ุชุงุฑูŠุฎ ุงู„ุทุจุฑูŠุŒ ูก/ ูกูฃ

Ali, Mohar Muhammad. Sirat al-Nabi (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) and the Orientalists. 1997 [xiv]

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