Home » Hanafi Fiqh » Askimam.org » Regarding ur Futwa # 16425 , You have mentioned that Takdeer (Qadr) can not be changed. But i have heard that dua can change takdeer. If your answer is that of Qada-e- Mubarram Haqiqi (Absolute slates) ….

Regarding ur Futwa # 16425 , You have mentioned that Takdeer (Qadr) can not be changed. But i have heard that dua can change takdeer. If your answer is that of Qada-e- Mubarram Haqiqi (Absolute slates) ….

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Regarding ur Futwa # 16425 , You have mentioned that  Takdeer  (Qadr) can not be changed. But i have heard (I do’nt now whether it is an authentic tradition or not) that dua can change takdeer. If your answer is that of Qada-e- Mubarram Haqiqi (Absolute slates) – the knowledge of which is only with Allah and can’t be changed and Qada-e-Mubarram Gair Haqiqi (Temporariy Slates) -which are with Angels and change when one makes dua or some good deed. Then please explain this in detail as i have some confusion in this. I have read  that all the khulfai-rashidean has prohibitted it to ponder too much in the matter of qadr, so please provide as much information as is permissible.


In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

Assalaamu `alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatuh

Fatwa #16425 specifically mentions that a nazr (vow) does not change taqdeer (pre-destiny). It is necessary to understand the difference between qadaa and qadar. Qadaa is Allah Ta’ala’s foreknowledge of events prior to their occurrence, while qadar is His bringing into existence those events in accordance to His knowledge. (Al-Fiqh al-Akbar Explained, P. 109, White Thread Press)

In the Quran, Allah Ta’ala says:

وكان أمر الله مفعولا

“And Allah’s decree had to be enforced.” (33:37)

وكان أمر الله قدرا مقدورا

“And Allah’s command is pre-determined by destiny.” (33:38)

Imam Abu Hanifa (Rahmatullah Alayhi) explained qadaa and qadar in Al-Fiqh al-Akbar, his text on aqeedah (Islamic creed). He wrote:

خلق الله تعالى الأشياء لا من شيء . و كان الله تعالى عالماً في الأزل بالأشياء قبل كونها ، و هو الذي قدر الأشياء و قضاها ، و لا يكون في الدنيا و لا في الآخرة شيء إلا بمشيئته و علمه و قضائه و قدره و كتبه في اللوح المحفوظ ، و لكن كتبه بالوصف لا بالحكم . و القضاء و القدر و المشيئة صفاته في الأزل بلا كيف

“Allah Most High created all things from no thing. Allah Most High knew in pre-eternity all things prior to their being. It was He who apportioned all things and ordained them. There is in this world nothing, nor in the next, except through His will, knowledge, ordination, decree, and in accordance with His writing it in the Preserved Tablet. Yet His writing entails descriptions, not commands. Ordaining, decreeing, and willing are His attributes in pre-eternity without description.”

The abovementioned is sufficient proof that every single thing that happened, is happening, or will happen has been pre-destined by Allah Ta’ala.

The following Hadith is referred to in your query:

قال رسول الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم- لا يرد القضاء إلا الدعاء

Rasulullah (SallAllahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) said, “Nothing can change the Divine Decree except dua.” (Jami’ Al-Tirmidhi, Vol. 2, P. 35, HM Saeed)

In the footnotes of this Hadith, Maulana Ahmed Ali Saharanpuri states that dua can change taqdeer. However, this act of dua which can change taqdeer is also pre-destined in itself, so it will not change what has already been written on the Tablet. For simplicity in understanding, an example is as follows:

When destiny was written, Allah Ta’ala already destined that at a certain time at such and such place, Zaid will make dua to Allah and his taqdeer will then be changed as a result of his dua.

So yes, his taqdeer was changed as a result of his dua. However, the act as a whole was already pre-destined to happen.

Finally, it is true that one should not ponder over the matter of qadar too much, as it is impossible for even the most intelligent of man to comprehend. Allah Ta’ala states in the Holy Quran:

وما أوتيتم من العلم إلا قليلا

“And of knowledge you have been given but little” (17:85)

When Ali ibn Abi Talib (RadiyAllahu Anhu) was caliph, he was asked about a matter while he was standing on the pulpit, to which he responded, “I don’t know.” It was said to him, “How can you ascend this pulpit and say you do not know?” His reply was, “I ascended it according to my knowledge of things, had I ascended it according to my level of ignorance, I would have reached the heavens.” This statement emphasizes that mankind can only reach a certain level of understanding, even at the most advanced level, and that true knowledge is to recognize the limit of one’s knowledge, intellect, and understanding.

Therefore, the matter of taqdeer is one which is impossible to comprehend. In fact, it should not be discussed excessively. Wahb ibn Munabbih (Rahmatullah Alayhi), who was amongst the Tabi’een, said, “I looked into the matter of qadar, and I was bewildered. I looked into it again, and I was still bewildered. I then concluded that the most knowledgeable of people regarding qadar are those who keep the farthest away from it, and the most ignorant of people regarding qadar are those who talk most about it.” This is also supported by what Rasulullah (SallAllahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) said: “When destiny is discussed, restrain yourself from it.” (Tabarani)

قال رسول الله كتب الله مقادير الخلائق جمع مقدار وهو الشيء الذي يعرف به قدر الشيء وكميته كالمكيال والميزان وقد يستعمل بمعنى القدر نفسه وهو الكمية والكيفية قبل أن يخلق السموات والأرض ومعنى كتب الله أجرى الله القلم على اللوح المحفوظ بإيجاد ما بينهما من التعلق وأثبت فيه مقادير الخلق ما كان وما هو كائن إلى الأبد على وفق ما تعلقت به إرادته أزلا كإثبات الكاتب ما في ذهنه بقلمه على لوحه وقيل أمر الله القلم أن يثبت في اللوح ما سيوجد من الخلائق ذاتا وصفة وفعلا وخيرا وشرا على ما تعلقت به إرادته

(Mirqat Al-Mafateeh, Vol. 1, P. 257, Rashidiyya)

قال في شرح السنة الإيمان بالقدر فرض لازم وهو أن يعتقد أن الله تعالى خالق أعمال العباد خيرها وشرها وكتبها في اللوح المحفوظ قبل أن خلقهم والكل بقضائه وقدره وإرادته ومشيئته غير أنه يرضى الإيمان والطاعة ووعد عليهما الثواب ولا يرضى الكفر والمعصية وأوعد عليهما العقاب والقدر سر من أسرار الله تعالى لم يطلع عليه ملكا مقربا ولا نبيا مرسلا

(Mirqat Al-Mafateeh, Vol. 1, P. 256, Rashidiyya)

وقال أبو المظفر ابن السمعاني : سبيل معرفة هذا الباب التوقيف من الكتاب والسنة دون محض القياس والعقل ، فمن عدل عن التوقيف فيه ضل وتاه في بحار الحيرة ولم يبلغ شفاء العين ولا ما يطمئن به القلب ، لأن القدر سر من أسرار الله تعالى اختص العليم الخبير به وضرب دونه الأستار وحجبه عن عقول الخلق ومعارفهم لما علمه من الحكمة ، فلم يعلمه نبي مرسل ولا ملك مقرب

(Fathul Bari, Vol. 11, P. 584, Dar al-Kutub Ilmiyya)

(و كان أمر الله مفعولاً) : أى مقضياً ما قضاء كائن……….(و كان أمر الله قدراً مقدوراً) : أى كل شيء بقضاء و قدر

(Tafseer al-Kabeer al-Mawsum, Vol. 25, P. 212-213, Dar al-Kutub Ilmiyya)

(Fatawa Mahmudiyya, Vol. 1, P. 219-221, Faruqiyya)

(Al-Fiqh al-Akbar Explained, P. 105-112, White Thread Press)

And Allah knows best


Ml. Asif Umar,
Student Darul Iftaa

Checked and Approved by:

Mufti Ebrahim Desai
Darul Iftaa, Madrassah In’aamiyyah

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This answer was collected from Askimam.org, which is operated under the supervision of Mufti Ebrahim Desai from South Africa.

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