salams i would like to know what is the shafii ruling on salat ul eid.
Both of the Salahs of the two Eids [Fitr, which is at the end of Ramadan; Adha that takes place on the 10th of Dhul Hijjah] are Sunnah Mu’akkadah [a confirmed/established Sunnah], and it is recommended [mandub] to be prayed in Jama’ah [congregation].1
The ruling is sunnah – and therefore recommended –2 due to the hadith of the Prophet Muhammad (‘alayhis salam) in which a man asked him, “What is obligatory upon me?” He said in response, “Five prayers have been ordained upon his slaves … ” the man asked Him, “Is there anything more [obligatory] upon me?” The Prophet Muhammad said, “No! Except what is supererogatory.” [Sahih Al-Bukhari and Muslim] Therefore no other prayer can be obligatory except the five commanded by Allah ta’ala.
It is deemed “mu’akkadah (established/confirmed)” because the Prophet Muhammad never left it and always performed it [Mughni]. Imam An-Nawawi in his Minhaj uses the term qeela [which in the language of jurists means a weaker opinion holds] that it is fard kifayah, i.e. that a certain part of the community is obligated to perform it.
Imam Khatib Ash-Shirbini states, “And the Muslims have consensus that it is not Fard ‘Ayn [personally obligatory].” [Mughni vol 1 page 530 Dar Ihya Turath]
The performance of Salatul-Eid see this link.
And Allah Knows Best
Shafiifiqh.com Fatwa Dept.