The Basics of Prayer & Fasting
Answered by Umm `Umar Bozai
The basics of prayer & fasting
In the Name of Allah, Most Merciful and Compassionate
The Basics of
PRAYER & FASTING
(Based on al-Risalat al-Jami`ah)
Umm `Umar Bozai
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. Praise Allah, Lord of the Worlds. Allah favor our master Muhammad, and his family and companions and salute them.
Conditions (Shurut) of Prayer
The main conditions of prayer are five:
(1) ritual purity (taharah) through ablution (wudu) or bathing (ghusl);
(2) determining the entrance of the time with certainty or confidence through estimation ;
(3) facing the prayer direction (qiblah);
(4) covering the shameful parts (`awrah) by wearing a barrier that conceals their color ; and
(5) removal of filth (najasah) from ones body, clothes, and place.
The integrals of ablution are six:
(2) washing the face; then
(3) washing the arms; then
(4) wetting the head; then
(5) washing the feet; and
(6) the sequence mentioned.
Four things nullify ablution:
(1) anything exiting the private parts;
(2) losing awareness;
(3) directly touching any persons genitals or anus with the inside of the hand; and
(4) skin-to-skin contact between a male and female that are mature and marriageable to each other.
The necessitators of bathing are five:
(1) ejaculate exiting;
(2) sexual intercourse;
(4) childbed (nifas); and
The integrals of bathing are two:
(1) the intention; and
(2) washing the whole body.
Integrals (Arkan) of Prayer
The integrals of prayer are thirteen:
(1) standing if able for (2)-(4);
(2) saying Allahu akbar;
(3) intending with the Allahu akbar;
(4) reciting the Fatihah;
(5) bowing (ruku`) with repose;
(6) straightening up with repose;
(7) prostrating (sujud) twice with repose;
(8) sitting back between prostrations with repose;
(9) the last sitting for (10)-(12);
(10) reciting the Greetings (tahiyyat);
(11) praying for the Prophet (Allah favor and salute him);
(12) saying the Salaam; and
(13) the sequence.
Invalidators (Mubtilat) of Prayer
The main invalidators or prayer are three:
(2) extra movement; and
The following also invalidate the prayer:
-ones shameful parts being exposed;
-the occurrence of filth; and
-preceding or lagging behind the imam for two physical integrals without excuse.
Integrals of Fasting
The integrals of fasting are two:
(1) intention each eve for the following day; and
(2) refraining from the voiders of the fast
Voiders of Fasting
The voiders of fasting (if done with intent, knowledge, and choice) are four:
(1) a body reaching a body cavity via a perceptible opening;
(3) ejaculate exiting through induction or direct skin contact; and
And Allah favor our master Muhammad, and his family and companions and salute them.