The Basics of Prayer & Fasting

Answered by Umm `Umar Bozai

  The basics of prayer & fasting

In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

In the Name of Allah, Most Merciful and Compassionate

The Basics of


(Based on al-Risalat al-Jami`ah)

 Umm `Umar Bozai

 Edited by

Mostafa Azzam

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.  Praise Allah, Lord of the Worlds.  Allah favor our master Muhammad, and his family and companions and salute them.  


Conditions (Shurut) of Prayer  

The main conditions of prayer are five:

(1) ritual purity (taharah) through ablution (wudu’) or bathing (ghusl);

(2) determining the entrance of the time with certainty or confidence through estimation ;

(3) facing the prayer direction (qiblah);

(4) covering the shameful parts (`awrah) by wearing a barrier that conceals their color ; and

(5) removal of filth (najasah) from one’s body, clothes, and place.

The integrals of ablution are six:

(1) intention;

(2) washing the face; then

(3) washing the arms; then

(4) wetting the head; then

(5) washing the feet; and

(6) the sequence mentioned.

Four things nullify ablution:

(1) anything exiting the private parts;

(2) losing awareness;

(3) directly touching any person’s genitals or anus with the inside of the hand; and

(4) skin-to-skin contact between a male and female that are mature and marriageable to each other.

The necessitators of bathing are five:

(1) ejaculate exiting;

(2) sexual intercourse;

(3) menstruation;

(4) childbed (nifas); and

(5) childbirth.

The integrals of bathing are two:

(1) the intention; and

(2) washing the whole body.   

Integrals (Arkan) of Prayer 

The integrals of prayer are thirteen:

(1) standing if able for (2)-(4);

(2) saying Allahu akbar;

(3) intending with the Allahu akbar;

(4) reciting the Fatihah;

(5) bowing (ruku`) with repose;

(6) straightening up with repose;

(7) prostrating (sujud) twice with repose;

(8) sitting back between prostrations with repose;

(9) the last sitting for (10)-(12);

(10) reciting the Greetings (tahiyyat);

(11) praying for the Prophet (Allah favor and salute him);

(12) saying the Salaam; and

(13) the sequence.

Invalidators (Mubtilat) of Prayer

The main invalidators or prayer are three:

(1) utterance;

(2) extra movement; and

(3) ingestion.

The following also invalidate the prayer:

-one’s shameful parts being exposed;

-the occurrence of filth; and

-preceding or lagging behind the imam for two physical integrals without excuse.



Integrals of Fasting

The integrals of fasting are two:

(1) intention each eve for the following day; and

(2) refraining from the voiders of the fast

Voiders of Fasting

The voiders of fasting (if done with intent, knowledge, and choice) are four:

(1) a body reaching a body cavity via a perceptible opening;

(2) copulation;

(3) ejaculate exiting through induction or direct skin contact; and

(4) vomiting.

And Allah favor our master Muhammad, and his family and companions and salute them.