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Who is entitled to suffer the loss in a Mudharabah Investment?

Question

Humme koi business meh maal lagaya ek saathi ko lekar, fifty% profit & loss per. Ussmeh saamne wale ki sirf mehnat. Aurr paise maal hamara, saath meh maal khareedne ki mehnat bhi aurr know how deyna aurr business batana bhi. Jiska Paisa Nahi laga, usska kaam sirf dukaan per baithna. Lekin uss shask ney maal bhejkar Paisa khaaliya, aurr maal churaya bhi. Toh abh business meh poora loss hua. Issmeh kisko kitna loss, loss ki wajah sirf chori aurr gasab.

Additional Information:

Assalaamualaikum! Mufti Sahab iss sawaal meh Maine batana bhoolgaya tha k abh woh Paise ki chori aurr maal ki chori k baad mere lagaye huye 8 lakh meh sey sirf 1.6 lakhs hi deyne ko kehta hai woh bhi 18-20 months hogaya. Abh shariat ka kya hukm lageyga. Mujhepar usski chori k wajah sey koi loss aaeidh hogaya rehnumai farmaye. Jazakallah

Translation:

We have invested some wealth in a business with another person on an agreed ratio of 50% profit and loss sharing. The other partner will only put in his effort. And money and goods are mine. Additionally, the effort of buying the goods and giving business know how and how to carry out business, is also from me. The one who did not spend any money, his work is to sit in the shop.

However, he sold the goods, plundered the money, and stole some goods. The business suffered a loss. Who will bear how much of the loss? The reason behind the loss is only theft usurpation.

Additional Information:

Mufti Saheb I had forgotten to mention this part in the question. After stealing the funds and wealth, he is willing to only pay 1.6 Lakh from the 8 Lakh I had invested, that too 18- 20 months have passed by. What is the ruling of Shariah in this regard? I have suffered a loss due to his theft and actions.

Please enlighten us!

Jazakallah

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

Brother in Islam,

According to the information provided by you, you have invested in a Mudharabah Model.

Mudharabah is wherein one partner contributes investment capital to the partnership while the other partner contributes management skills. [1]

In a Mudharabah Partnership, all losses will be attributed to the investor (Rabbul-Maal). The working partner (Mudharib) will merely lose his efforts in managing the Mudharabah portfolio.

However, if it is proven that the working partner (Mudharib) has been negligent, has breached his obligations or has failed to discharge his obligations under the agreement, then the Mudharib will be liable for the loss of the Mudharabah. [2]

According to what you have stated, the working partner (Mudharib) is liable for the loss incurred. Therefore, all losses will be attributed to the working partner (Mudharib), and he will be liable to pay back the loss incurred.

He will be liable to pay back the entire amount, which was suffered as a loss. If the loss amount totals up to 8 Lakh, he will be liable to pay for the entire capital amount invested. [3]

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Checked and Approved by

Mufti Nabeel Valli.

Darul Iftaa Mahmudiyyah

Lusaka, Zambia

www.daruliftaazambia.com

[1]

مجلة الأحكام العدلية (ص: 271)

الْمَادَّةُ (1404) الْمُضَارَبَةُ نَوْعُ شَرِكَةٍ عَلَى أَنْ يَكُونَ رَأْسُ الْمَالِ مِنْ طَرَفٍ وَالسَّعْيُ وَالْعَمَلُ مِنْ الطَّرَفِ الْآخَرِ , وَيُدْعَى صَاحِبُ الْمَالِ رَبَّ الْمَالِ وَالْعَامِلُ مُضَارِبًا

 

الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (5/ 645)

(هي) لغة مفاعلة من الضرب في الأرض وهو السير فيها وشرعا (عقد شركة في الربح بمال من جانب) رب المال (وعمل من جانب) المضارب

 

(قوله من جانب المضارب) قيد به؛ لأنه لو اشترط رب المال أن يعمل مع المضارب فسدت كما سيصرح به المصنف في باب المضارب يضارب

 

[2]

مجلة الأحكام العدلية (ص: 274)

الْمَادَّةُ (1421) إذَا خَرَجَ الْمُضَارِبُ عَنْ مَأْذُونِيَّتِهِ وَخَالَفَ الشَّرْطَ يَكُونُ غَاصِبًا وَفِي هَذَا الْحَالِ يَعُودُ الرِّبْحُ وَالْخَسَارَةُ فِي بَيْعِ وَشِرَاءِ الْمُضَارِبِ عَلَيْهِ , وَإِذَا تَلِفَ مَالُ الْمُضَارَبَةِ يَكُونُ ضَامِنًا

 

الدر المختار وحاشية ابن عابدين (رد المحتار) (5/ 646)

 (وشركة إن ربح وغصب إن خالف وإن أجاز) رب المال (بعده) لصيرورته غاصبا بالمخالفة

(قوله: بالمخالفة) فالربح للمضارب لكنه غير طيب عند الطرفين در منتقى

  [3]

بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع (6/ 87)

فَإِذَا خَالَفَ شَرْطَ رَبِّ الْمَالِ صَارَ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الْغَاصِبِ، وَيَصِيرُ الْمَالُ مَضْمُونًا عَلَيْهِ، وَيَكُونُ رِبْحُ الْمَالِ كُلُّهُ بَعْدَ مَا صَارَ مَضْمُونًا عَلَيْهِ لَهُ؛ لِأَنَّ الرِّبْحَ بِالضَّمَانِ لَكِنَّهُ لَا يَطِيبُ لَهُ فِي قَوْلِ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ وَمُحَمَّدٍ رَحِمَهُمَا اللَّهُ وَعِنْدَ أَبِي يُوسُفَ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ – يَطِيبُ لَهُ وَهُوَ عَلَى اخْتِلَافِهِمْ فِي الْغَاصِبِ وَالْمُودَعِ إذَا تَصَرَّفَا فِي الْمَغْصُوبِ الْوَدِيعَةِ وَرَبِحَا

This answer was collected from Daruliftaazambia.com, which serves as a gateway to Darul Iftaa Mahmudiyyah – Lusaka, Zambia.

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