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Mudharabah Partnership

Answered according to Hanafi Fiqh by Askimam.org

Asalam a wrt bkh 

I hope ur in the best health and emaan.

My question is related to Islamic finance. If I were to do a partnership between two people. So if person A puts 100k towards a business venture and person B puts no capital towards it.  And they mutually decide to share the net profits. So person A gets 75% and remaining 25% goes to person B. Person A never runs or manages the business only person B runs the business. Is this allowed under masharik??

2. As person B is running the business can he also pay himself a wage as well?? Separate from the 25% profit he receives. As long as the both parties agree.

Jazakllah 

Answer

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

Muhtaram Brother,

May Allah Ta’ala keep you steadfast on Imaan and grant you good health. Aameen.

The partnership in reference is a Mudharabah partnership. [1]

Mudarabah is wherein one partner contributes investment capital to the partnership while the other partner contributes management skills. The investor is referred to as the Rab Ul-Maal while the entrepreneur is referred to as the Mudharib.

The investor and the entrepreneur mutually agree to share a percentage of the net profit, for example, 75% and 25%.

All expenses will be paid from the profit and the balance will then be distributed as per agreement.

The entrepreneur cannot receive a wage or a fixed percentage based on the capital amount.

All losses will be attributed to the investor. The Mudharib will merely lose his efforts in managing the Mudharabah portfolio.

Any amount withdrawn as salary will be treated as a loan and will be deducted from the actual profit the partners deserves at the end of the term.

However, the partners can mutually agree to increase their share of profit, for example from 25% to 27% to cover their costs.

The above condition is subject to the fact that the Mudharib has worked with due diligence. If it is proven that, he has breached his obligations or he failed to discharge his obligations under this agreement, then the Mudharib will be liable for the loss of the Mudharabah.

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Muhammad I.V Patel

Student Darul Iftaa
Lusaka, Zambia

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

_______


[1]  حاشية الشلبي على تبيين الحقائق (5/52)

قَالَ الْإتْقَانِيُّ هِيَ دَفْعُ الْمَالِ إلَى الْغَيْرِ لِيَتَّجِرَ بِهِ عَلَى أَنْ يَكُونَ الرِّبْحُ الْحَاصِلُ فِيهِ بَيْنَهُمَا عَلَى مَا شَرَطَا

 

الجوهرة النيرة على مختصر القدوري (1/ 291)

 وَفِي الشَّرْعِ عِبَارَةٌ عَنْ عَقْدٍ بَيْنَ اثْنَيْنِ يَكُونُ مِنْ أَحَدِهِمَا الْمَالُ وَمِنْ الْآخَرِ التِّجَارَةُ فِيهِ وَيَكُونُ الرِّبْحُ بَيْنَهُمَا. وَرُكْنُهَا الْإِيجَابُ، وَالْقَبُولُ

 

الاختيار لتعليل المختار (ص: 27، بترقيم الشاملة آليا)

كتاب المضاربة

المضارب شريك رب المال في الربح ورأس ماله الضرب في الأرض، فإذا سلم رأس المال إليه فهو أمانة، فإذا تصرف فيه فهو وكيل، فإذا ربح صار شريكاً، فإن شرط الربح للمضارب فهو قرض، وإن شرط لرب المال فهو بضاعة، وإذا فسدت المضاربة فهي إجارة فاسدة، وإذا خالف صار غاصباً، ولا تصح إلا أن يكون الربح بينهما مشاعاً؛ فإن شرط لأحدهما دراهم مسماة فسدت، والربح لرب المال، وللمضارب أجر مثله، واشتراط الوضيعة على المضارب باطل، ولا بد أن يكون المال مسلماً إلى المضارب، وللمضارب أن يبيع ويشتري بالنقد والنسيئة ويوكل ويسافر ويبضع، ولا يضارب إلا بإذن رب المال، أو بقوله: اعمل برأيك…..

 

بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع (6/ 85)

(وَمِنْهَا) أَنْ يَكُونَ الْمَشْرُوطُ لِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا مِنْ الْمُضَارِبِ وَرَبِّ الْمَالِ مِنْ الرِّبْحِ جُزْءًا شَائِعًا، نِصْفًا أَوْ ثُلُثًا أَوْ رُبْعًا، فَإِنْ شَرَطَا عَدَدًا مُقَدَّرًا بِأَنْ شَرَطَا أَنْ يَكُونَ لِأَحَدِهِمَا مِائَةُ دِرْهَمٍ مِنْ الرِّبْحِ أَوْ أَقَلُّ أَوْ أَكْثَرُ وَالْبَاقِي لِلْآخَرِ لَا يَجُوزُ، وَالْمُضَارَبَةُ فَاسِدَةٌ؛ لِأَنَّ الْمُضَارَبَةَ نَوْعٌ مِنْ الشَّرِكَةِ، وَهِيَ الشَّرِكَةُ فِي الرِّبْحِ، وَهَذَا شَرْطٌ يُوجِبُ قَطْعَ الشَّرِكَةِ فِي الرِّبْحِ؛ لِجَوَازِ أَنْ لَا يَرْبَحَ الْمُضَارِبُ إلَّا هَذَا الْقَدْرَ الْمَذْكُورَ، فَيَكُونُ ذَلِكَ لِأَحَدِهِمَا دُونَ الْآخَرِ، فَلَا تَتَحَقَّقُ الشَّرِكَةُ، فَلَا يَكُونُ التَّصَرُّفُ مُضَارَبَةً،

This answer was collected from Askimam.org, which is operated under the supervision of Mufti Ebrahim Desai from South Africa.

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