Answered by Ustadh Sufyan Qufi
Is it permissible to make up prayers during the forbidden times (such as before sunset)?
For example, if I just miss Fajr prayer and the sun rises, am I permitted/expected to pray Fajr immediately, during the forbidden time, or should I wait 30 mins till the forbidden time ends?
According to the Hanafi school, there are three times in the day when one is forbidden to offer any prayers, even make-up prayers, which are actually considered invalid if offered at these times.
These times are when the sun rises up until it is above the horizon by the length of a spear (about twenty minutes after sunrise), when the sun is at its zenith (the 5 minutes before Zuhr time) and when the sun turns dull in radiance such that one can look at it until it sets (about twenty minutes to half an hour before sunset). [Shurunbulali, Nur al-Idah]
If you have missed the Fajr prayer, you would have to wait 20 minutes after sunrise in order to make it up validly.
And Allah knows best.
[Ustadh] Sufyan Qufi
Checked and Approved by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani