The concern I had was with the claim that Fajr begins at the appearance of the morning white twilight (as opposed to the red twilight). I was wondering if I could please get a few verses, ḥadīths, or rulings of the fiqh scholars on this matter.
In the Name of Allāh, Most Merciful, Most Compassionate
Jazāk Allāh Khayr/ Thank you for your question. Mā shā Allāh, your concern to understand the religion is admirable.
In relation to the beginning of Fajr time, kindly note that Fajr time sets in at the appearance of the Shafaq al Abyadh (whiteness in the sky across the horizon). A few references for this stance are mentioned below:
Almighty Allāh states; “And eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of night)” (Qurʿān 2:187)
Ibn Abbās may Allāh be pleased with him) reports the Messenger of Allāh (peace and blessings upon him) said, “There are two fajrs (dawns). As for the first, it does not prevent eating (for the fasting person) nor does it permit prayer (the Fajr prayer). As for the other it prohibits eating and allows the prayer.” (Ibn Khuzaymah and Ḥākim)
Ibn Qudāmah (may Allāh’s mercy be upon him) emphasizes that there is scholarly consensus that the time for the Fajr prayer commences with the arrival of the true dawn. The true dawn can be distinguished from the false dawn in that it appears as a clear white line along the horizon. (Al-Mughnī)
This view is adopted by all Sunni Islamic jurists. (Al-Fiqh ʿAlā Madhāhib Al ʿArbaʿah)
And Allāh Knows Best