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Various Questions on Islam

Answered according to Hanafi Fiqh by FatwaCentre.org
Question

Assalamualaikum,

I have the following questions, I would really appreciate if it is answered and emailed back to me by a qualified islamic scholar.

1. Lets say, a muslim (while he is a muslim) intent to enter islam by saying la ilaha illallah after wishfully committing major shirk and/or major kufr. If he dies before saying la ilaha illallah (or before entering islam), will he die as a muslim and will he ever enter paradise? Also, can anyone reenter/enter islam more than once after committing major shirk and major kufr? (Also, is there a number after when one cannot renter islam?) Please, clarify each point.

2. Lets say there is multiple fatwa exists or given in an issue. If one chooses one fatwa from the fatwas out of his own desire, does he goes outside of islam? Also, will he be given any reward for the deed (choosing fatwa out of his own desire)?

3. Lets say there is multiple commentary exists for a verse of Quran or for a hadith of prophet Muhammad from different scholars. If a person chooses a commentary from a scholar based on his own desire and believes in it, does he goes outside islam? Also, will he be given any reward for the deed (choosing scholar’s commentary out of his own desire)?

4. I heard a hadith that ignorance person is forgiven. Lets say I am ignorant on purpose. In other words, I have a chance/opportunity to learn, but I did not learn ( because I wanted to remain ignorant on that matter), in that case will my ignorance be forgiven?

5. Lets say I committed a major shirk or major kufr out of ignorance. But I had a chance to learn whether something I did was major shirk/kufr or not, but I did not learn ( because I wanted to remain ignorant on that matter). In that case Will Allah punish me/ hold me accountable for both committing the shirk (or kufr) and not knowing, or Allah will punish me/ hold me accountable just for my ignorance? Or he will punish me for none because of my ignorance? Will I Go to heaven?

Jazakallahkhair.


Answer

1. a. If an individual commits major shirk or kufr and dies before re-entering Islam or saying the kalima, they will be judged as a disbeliever on this earth.[1]

However, if they had faith in their hearts and were not able to express it on the tongue before passing away, it is possible that Allah may enter them into Paradise.

Moreover, it is important to understand that if a person does commit shirk or kufr, and then offers a prayer or does dhikr of Allah, it would act as a renewal of their faith again.

b. One can renew their faith after committing major shirk or kufr. There is not a certain number which is a cut-off point.

Allah says in the Qur’an: “Say: O my servants! who have acted extravagantly against their own souls, do not despair of the mercy of Allah; surely Allah forgives the faults altogether; surely He is the Forgiving the Merciful” [39:53].

The exegetes mention that this verse was revealed about the polytheists who wished to enter Islam and asked the Prophet ﷺ if Allah will forgive their past sins and shirk.[2] We learn from the general nature of this verse, as well as the context in which it was revealed, that if a person sincerely repents to Allah, Allah will forgive him even if that person has committed shirk.

2 and 3.

One does not become a disbeliever by following their own desires in legal opinion. However, this is deeply reprehensible. With the advent of the internet, one will be able to access an opinion, however isolated or rejected, to coincide with their desires. How do we stop the religion from becoming a game then? Imam Ma’mar bin Rashid said: “If a person takes the opinion of the People of Medina on listening to music and anal sex, and the opinion of the People of Mecca on fixed period marriages (mut’a) and exchanging money for money, and the People of Kufa on intoxicants, then they are the worst of all slaves of Allah”.

In essence, one will always be able to find an opinion to continue upon what they are on. Following a school of thought or a specific scholar allows one to ensure that their religious practice is devotional, submissive to Allah and not a game of picking and choosing. This is known as taqlid. Taqlid makes the religion manageable, dispelling the possibility of playing around the religion. One will always be able to find an opinion, be that an official opinion of another school or an isolated position from a specific scholar, which coincides with their desires.

Taqlid ensures that the religion and its regulations are systematised and one uses taqlid to standardize the variety of religious verdict. For example, a position in the Hanafi school gives scope for a girl to get married without her guardian’s consent. The view of the Malikis is that a marriage without witnesses is valid. Without systemised taqlid, what is to prevent someone for a guy and girl to offer their offer (ijab) and acceptance (qubul) in complete secret and become “married” by mixing and matching these different views? Here, the marriage would not be valid according to any of the two schools used. Another such example is a person who has touched his wife, in the Hanafi school, his wudhu is intact. He starts bleeding and then takes the Shafi‘i opinion that bleeding does not nullify the wudhu.

For the uninformed and lay masses, asking the scholars and referring to a madhhab is essential to Muslim practice. Taqlid of a specific school makes practice manageable and systematised.

4/5.

One is obligated to learn about the fundamentals of their faith. It is compulsory upon all Muslims to acquire the knowledge required to establish their fard acts (salah, purification, zakat etc) and recognise truth from evil, halal from haram.[3] Therefore, learning what constitutes as Islam, shirk and kufr is essential and compulsory for all Muslims.

Ignorance is not acceptable as an excuse for not knowing the rulings of the Shari’a when knowledge is available, and one has the possibility of learning.[4] This point is completely equalised in the contemporary world of the internet where knowledge is accessible to all. Thus, if you choose to stay ignorant of the rules of kufr/shirk hoping to find favour with Allah, you will be disappointed. Distinguishing Islam from shirk and kufr is the absolute fundamental of our religion, so staying ignorant of these topics is a great misfortune.

To protect oneself from such thoughts and actions, keep steadfast on the following du’as.

‏يا مقلب القلوب ثبت قلبي على دينك‏

Ya muqallib al-qulub. Thabbit qalbi ‘ala dinik

“O turner of hearts make my heart steadfast in Your religion”.

رَبَّنَا لا تُزِغْ قُلُوبَنَا بَعْدَ إِذْ هَدَيْتَنَا وَهَبْ لَنَا مِنْ لَدُنْكَ رَحْمَةً إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ الْوَهَّابُ

Rabbana la tuzig qulubana ba‘da iḍh hadaytana wa hab lana min ladunka raḥma, Inna anta al-wahhab.

“Our Lord let not our hearts deviate after You have guided us and grant us from Yourself mercy. Indeed, you are the Bestower”.

I pray that Allah keeps you strong.

[1]              البحر الرائق شرح كنز الدقائق ومنحة الخالق وتكملة الطوري (5/ 134-5) مُوجِبِ الْكُفْرِ فَلَا يَنْفَعُهُ التَّأْوِيلُ حِينَئِذٍ وَفِي التَّتَارْخَانِيَّة لَا يَكْفُرُ بِالْمُحْتَمَلِ لِأَنَّ الْكُفْرَ نِهَايَةٌ فِي الْعُقُوبَةِ فَيَسْتَدْعِي نِهَايَةً فِي الْجِنَايَةِ وَمَعَ الِاحْتِمَالِ لَا نِهَايَةَ اهـ. وَالْحَاصِلُ أَنَّ مَنْ تَكَلَّمَ بِكَلِمَةِ الْكُفْرِ هَازِلًا أَوْ لَاعِبًا كَفَرَ عِنْدَ الْكُلِّ وَلَا اعْتِبَارَ بِاعْتِقَادِهِ كَمَا صَرَّحَ بِهِ قَاضِي خَانْ فِي فَتَاوِيهِ وَمَنْ تَكَلَّمَ بِهَا مُخْطِئًا أَوْ مُكْرَهًا لَا يَكْفُرُ عِنْدَ الْكُلِّ وَمَنْ تَكَلَّمَ بِهَا عَالِمًا عَامِدًا كَفَرَ عِنْدَ الْكُلِّ وَمَنْ تَكَلَّمَ بِهَا اخْتِيَارًا جَاهِلًا بِأَنَّهَا كُفْرٌ فَفِيهِ اخْتِلَافٌ وَاَلَّذِي تَحَرَّرَ أَنَّهُ لَا يُفْتَى بِتَكْفِيرِ مُسْلِمٍ أَمْكَنَ حَمْلُ كَلَامِهِ عَلَى مَحْمَلٍ حَسَنٍ أَوْ كَانَ فِي كُفْرِهِ اخْتِلَافٌ وَلَوْ رِوَايَةً ضَعِيفَةً فَعَلَى هَذَا فَأَكْثَرُ أَلْفَاظِ التَّكْفِيرِ الْمَذْكُورَةِ لَا يُفْتَى بِالتَّكْفِيرِ بِهَا وَلَقَدْ أَلْزَمْت نَفْسِي أَنْ لَا أُفْتِيَ بِشَيْءٍ مِنْهَا

[2]              التحرير والتنوير (24/ 40)وَالْخطاب بعنوان يَا عِبادِيَ مُرَادٌ بِهِ الْمُشْرِكُونَ ابْتِدَاءً بِدَلِيلِ قَوْلِهِ: وَأَسْلِمُوا لَهُ مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ يَأْتِيَكُمُ الْعَذابُ [الزمر: 54] وَقَوْلُهُ: وَإِنْ كُنْتُ لَمِنَ السَّاخِرِينَ [الزمر: 56] وَقَوْلُهُ: بَلى قَدْ جاءَتْكَ آياتِي فَكَذَّبْتَ بِها وَاسْتَكْبَرْتَ وَكُنْتَ مِنَ الْكافِرِينَ [الزمر: 59] . وَفِي «صَحِيحِ الْبُخَارِيِّ» عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ «أَنَّ نَاسًا مِنْ أَهْلِ الشِّرْكِ كَانُوا قَدْ قَتَلُوا وَأَكْثَرُوا، وَزَنَوْا وَأَكْثَرُوا، فَأَتَوْا مُحَمَّدًا صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالُوا: إِنَّ الَّذِي تَقُولُ وَتَدْعُو إِلَيْهِ لَحَسَنٌ لَوْ تُخْبِرُنَا أَنَّ لِمَا عَمِلْنَا كَفَّارَةٌ- يَعْنِي وَقَدْ سَمِعُوا آيَاتِ الْوَعِيدِ لِمَنْ يَعْمَلُ تِلْكَ الْأَعْمَالَ وَإِلَّا فَمِنْ أَيْنَ عَلِمُوا أَنَّ تِلْكَ الْأَعْمَالَ جَرَائِمٌ وَهُمْ فِي جَاهِلِيَّةٍ- فَنَزَلَ: وَالَّذِينَ لَا يَدْعُونَ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلهاً آخَرَ وَلا يَقْتُلُونَ النَّفْسَ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ وَلا يَزْنُونَ [الْفرْقَان: 68] يَعْنِي إِلَى قَوْلِهِ: إِلَّا مَنْ تابَ وَآمَنَ وَعَمِلَ عَمَلًا صالِحاً [الْفرْقَان: 70] وَنَزَلَ: قُلْ يَا عِبادِيَ الَّذِينَ أَسْرَفُوا عَلى أَنْفُسِهِمْ لَا تَقْنَطُوا مِنْ رَحْمَةِ اللَّهِ. وَقَدْ رُوِيَتْ أَحَادِيثٌ عِدَّةٌ فِي سَبَبِ نُزُولِ هَذِهِ الْآيَةِ غَيْرُ حَدِيثِ الْبُخَارِيِّ وَهِيَ بَيْنَ ضَعِيفٍ وَمَجْهُولٍ وَيُسْتَخْلَصُ مِنْ مجموعها أَنَّهَا جزئيات لِعُمُومِ الْآيَةِ وَأَنَّ الْآيَةَ عَامَّةٌ لِخِطَابِ جَمِيعِ الْمُشْرِكِينَ وَقَدْ أَشَرْنَا إِلَيْهَا فِي دِيبَاجَةِ تَفْسِيرِ السُّورَةِ

التحرير والتنوير (24/ 41) وَبَعْدَ هَذَا فَعُمُومُ «عِبَادِيَ» وَعُمُومُ صِلَةِ الَّذِينَ أَسْرَفُوا يَشْمَلُ أَهْلَ الْمَعَاصِي مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَإِنْ كَانَ الْمَقْصُودُ الْأَصْلِيُّ مِنَ الْخِطَابِ الْمُشْرِكِينَ عَلَى عَادَةِ الْكَلَامِ الْبَلِيغِ مِنْ كَثْرَةِ الْمَقَاصِدِ وَالْمَعَانِي الَّتِي تُفَرَّغُ فِي قَوَالِبٍ تَسَعُهَا.

تفسير القرطبي (15/ 268) وَعَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: كَانَ قَوْمٌ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ قَتَلُوا فَأَكْثَرُوا، وَزَنَوْا فَأَكْثَرُوا، فَقَالُوا لِلنَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَوْ بَعَثُوا إِلَيْهِ: إن ما تدعو إليه لحسن أو تخبرنا أَنَّ لَنَا تَوْبَةً؟ فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ هذه الآية:” قُلْ يَا عِبادِيَ الَّذِينَ أَسْرَفُوا عَلى أَنْفُسِهِمْ” ذَكَرَهُ الْبُخَارِيُّ بِمَعْنَاهُ. وَقَدْ مَضَى فِي آخِرِ” الْفُرْقَانِ” «2». وَعَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ أَيْضًا نزلت في أهل مكة قالوا: بزعم مُحَمَّدٌ أَنَّ مَنْ عَبَدَ الْأَوْثَانَ وَقَتَلَ النَّفْسَ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ لَمْ يُغْفَرْ لَهُ، وَكَيْفَ نُهَاجِرُ وَنُسْلِمُ وَقَدْ عَبَدْنَا مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَهًا آخَرَ وَقَتَلْنَا النَّفْسَ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ هَذِهِ الْآيَةَ. وَقِيلَ: إِنَّهَا نَزَلَتْ فِي قَوْمٍ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ أَسْرَفُوا عَلَى أَنْفُسِهِمْ فِي الْعِبَادَةِ، وَخَافُوا أَلَّا يُتَقَبَّلَ مِنْهُمْ لِذُنُوبٍ سَبَقَتْ لَهُمْ فِي الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ. وَقَالَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ أَيْضًا وَعَطَاءٌ نَزَلَتْ فِي وَحْشِيٍّ قَاتِلِ حَمْزَةَ، لِأَنَّهُ ظَنَّ أَنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَقْبَلُ إِسْلَامَهُ: وَرَوَى ابْنُ جُرَيْجٍ عَنْ عَطَاءٍ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: أَتَى وَحْشِيٌّ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، فَقَالَ: يَا مُحَمَّدُ أَتَيْتُكَ مُسْتَجِيرًا فَأَجِرْنِي حَتَّى أَسْمَعَ كَلَامَ اللَّهِ. فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ:” قَدْ كُنْتُ أُحِبُّ أَنْ أَرَاكَ عَلَى غَيْرِ جِوَارٍ فَأَمَّا إِذْ أَتَيْتَنِي مُسْتَجِيرًا فَأَنْتَ فِي جِوَارِي حَتَّى تَسْمَعَ كَلَامَ اللَّهِ” قَالَ: فَإِنِّي أَشْرَكْتُ بِاللَّهِ وَقَتَلْتُ النَّفْسَ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ وَزَنَيْتُ، هَلْ يقبل الله منى توبة؟ فصمت رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ حَتَّى نَزَلَتْ:” وَالَّذِينَ لَا يَدْعُونَ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلهاً آخَرَ وَلا يَقْتُلُونَ النَّفْسَ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ وَلا يَزْنُونَ” [الفرقان: 68 إِلَى آخِرِ الْآيَةِ فَتَلَاهَا عَلَيْهِ، فَقَالَ أَرَى شَرْطًا فَلَعَلِّي لَا أَعْمَلُ صَالِحًا، أَنَا فِي جِوَارِكَ حَتَّى أَسْمَعَ كَلَامَ اللَّهِ. فَنَزَلَتْ:” إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَغْفِرُ أَنْ يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ ما دُونَ ذلِكَ لِمَنْ يَشاءُ” [النساء: 48] فَدَعَا بِهِ فَتَلَا عَلَيْهِ، قَالَ: فَلَعَلِّي مِمَّنْ لَا يَشَاءُ أَنَا فِي جِوَارِكَ حَتَّى أَسْمَعَ كَلَامَ اللَّهِ. فَنَزَلَتْ:” يَا عِبادِيَ الَّذِينَ أَسْرَفُوا عَلى أَنْفُسِهِمْ لَا تَقْنَطُوا مِنْ رَحْمَةِ اللَّهِ” فَقَالَ: نَعَمِ الْآنَ لَا أَرَى شَرْطًا. فَأَسْلَمَ.

[3]           الاختيار لتعليل المختار (4/ 171) وَطَلَبُ الْعِلْمِ فَرِيضَةٌ، قَالَ – عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ -: «طَلَبُ الْعِلْمِ فَرِيضَةٌ عَلَى كُلِّ مُسْلِمٍ وَمُسْلِمَةٍ» . وَهُوَ أَقْسَامٌ: فَرْضٌ، وَهُوَ مِقْدَارُ مَا يَحْتَاجُ إِلَيْهِ لِإِقَامَةِ الْفَرَائِضِ وَمَعْرِفَةِ الْحَقِّ مِنَ الْبَاطِلِ، وَالْحَلَالِ مِنَ الْحَرَامِ، وَهُوَ مَحْمَلُ الْحَدِيثِ؛ وَمُسْتَحَبٌّ وَقُرْبَةٌ كَتَعْلِيمِ مَا لَا يَحْتَاجُ إِلَيْهِ لِيُعَلِّمَ مَنْ يَحْتَاجُ إِلَيْهِ كَالْفَقِيرِ يَتَعَلَّمُ أَحْكَامَ الزَّكَاةِ وَالْحَجِّ لِيُعَلِّمَهَا مَنْ وَجَبَا عَلَيْهِ، وَكَذَلِكَ تَعَلُّمُ الْفَضَائِلِ وَالسُّنَنِ كَالْأَذَانِ وَالْإِقَامَةِ وَالْجَمَاعَةِ وَسُنَّةِ الْخِتَانِ وَنَحْوِهَا، وَمُبَاحٌ وَهُوَ الزِّيَادَةُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ لِلزِّينَةِ وَالْكَمَالِ؛ وَمَكْرُوهٌ وَهُوَ التَّعَلُّمُ لِيُبَاهِيَ بِهِ الْعُلَمَاءَ وَيُمَارِيَ بِهِ السُّفَهَاءَ، قَالَ – عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ -: «مَنْ تَعَلَّمَ عِلْمًا لِيُبَاهِيَ بِهِ الْعُلَمَاءَ وَيُمَارِيَ بِهِ السُّفَهَاءَ أُلْجِمَ بِلِجَامٍ مِنْ نَارٍ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ» ؛ وَلِذَلِكَ كَرِهَ أَبُو حَنِيفَةَ تَعَلُّمَ الْكَلَامِ وَالْمُنَاظَرَةَ فِيهِ وَرَاءَ قَدْرِ الْحَاجَةِ.

[4]              حاشية ابن عابدين = رد المحتار ط الحلبي» (3/ 75): (قَوْلُهُ لِتَفَرُّغِهَا لِلْعِلْمِ) أَيْ لِأَنَّهَا تَتَفَرَّغُ لِمَعْرِفَةِ أَحْكَامِ الشَّرْعِ وَالدَّارُ دَارُ الْعِلْمِ فَلَمْ ‌تُعْذَرْ ‌بِالْجَهْلِ بَحْرٌ أَيْ أَنَّهَا يُمْكِنُهَا التَّفَرُّغُ لِلتَّعَلُّمِ لِفَقْدِ مَا يَمْنَعُهَا مِنْهُ، وَإِنْ لَمْ تُكَلَّفْ بِهِ قَبْلَ بُلُوغِهَا»

البحر الرائق شرح كنز الدقائق ومنحة الخالق وتكملة الطوري» (3/ 130):وَالْوَلِيُّ يَنْفَرِدُ بِهِ فَعُذِرَتْ وَلَا يُشْتَرَطُ الْعِلْمُ بِأَنَّ لَهَا خِيَارَ الْبُلُوغِ؛ لِأَنَّهَا تَتَفَرَّغُ لِمَعْرِفَةِ أَحْكَامِ الشَّرْعِ وَالدَّارُ دَارُ الْعِلْمِ فَلَمْ ‌تُعْذَرْ ‌بِالْجَهْلِ بِخِلَافِ الْمُعْتَقَةِ؛ لِأَنَّ الْأَمَةَ لَا تَتَفَرَّغُ لِمَعْرِفَتِهَا فَتُعْذَرُ بِالْجَهْلِ بِثُبُوتِ الْخِيَارِ

Answered by:
Maulana Ikramul Hoque Miah

Checked & Approved by:
Mufti Abdul Rahman Mangera
Mufti Zubair Patel

This answer was collected from FatwaCentre.org, which is overseen by Dr. Mufti Abdur-Rahman Mangera.

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