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Islamic Laws Applying Only to Muslim Women

Answered according to Hanafi Fiqh by Fatwaa.com

Assalâmu ‘alaykum wa rahmatullâhi wa barakâtuh respected Muftî.

I’ve been told that during the times of the Ottoman Khilâfah all women, Muslims and kuffâr, practiced on Hijâb. There was only a slight difference in dress, namely that the Muslim women were in niqâb while the kuffâr women had only their head covered and their face revealed.

We already discussed once about Sharî’ah and what of it applies solely for Muslims and what of it also applies for kuffâr, but I would like to make an additional short inquiry.

1) Does the Qur’ânic obligation of covering the female apply only for Muslims or also for kuffâr?

2) If it applies only for Muslims would the kuffâr women thus be allowed to walk around uncovered in an Islâmic state?

3) If it applies only for Muslims could an Islâmic state pass a law prohibiting the kuffâr women to walk around uncovered and thus make it obligatory for them to cover too?

Jazâk Allâhu khayran.

Answer

Wa’alaykum as Salam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu,

1) The ruling applies only for Muslims.

2) If the court does not issue an order, it will be permissible from an Islamic point of view.

3) Yes, it is permissible for the court to issue such a verdict.


لأن النصرانية غير مخاطبة بالاغتسال (المبسوط للسرخسي – (2 / 254)

ولقب المسألة أن الكفار غير مخاطبين بشرائع هي عبادات عندنا خلافا له (تحفة الفقهاء – (1 / 350)

لأن الكفار غير مخاطبين بشرائع هي من القربات (بدائع الصنائع – (1 / 35)

إذ الكفار غير مخاطبين بشرائع هي عبادات عندنا (بدائع الصنائع – (1 / 246)

لأن الكافر غير مخاطب بفروع الإيمان في حق الأداء وقد حققناه فيما علقناه على المنار (الدر المختار – (2 / 458)

أو كان المالك كافرا لعدم مخاطبته بالشرائع (الدر المختار – (5 / 103)

ولا على كافر بناء على المشهور من أن الكفار غير مخاطبين بالعبادات (حاشية ابن عابدين – (1 / 86)

(وإذا طلق الذمي الذمية) أو مات عنها (فلا عدة عليها) عند أبي حنيفة، إذا كان ذلك في دينهم، لأنها إنما تجب لحق اللّه تعالى وحق الزوج، وهي غير مخاطبة بحقوق اللّه تعالى كالصلاة والصومولا إحداد على كافرة) لأنها غير مخاطبة بحقوق الشرع (اللباب في شرح الكتاب – (1 / 289)

And Allaah Ta’aala knows best
Wassalaam,
Ismail Moosa (Mufti)
Iftaa Department,
Euro-Sunni & Islamic Research and Welfare Academy

This answer was collected from Fatwaa.com which is an excellent Q&A site managed by Mufti Ismail Moosa from South Africa. .

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