Our father had two wives. We are four brothers and a sister, one of our brothers is from a different mother. When our father died, the property was divided among our four brothers and a sister after our mother share of one-eighth (1/8) as follows:
Mother – 1/8
Each Brother – (2/9) x (7/8) = 7/36
Sister – (1/9) x (7/8) = 7/72
Then, when one of our brothers died, he was not married. Will the share he received from the above calculation now be divided among his siblings after the mother’s share is being given? My question in how much is the share of the mother and each brother and sister, and whether our half-brother (from our father’s second wife) would receive any share?
الجواب وباللہ التوفیق
1- The explanation you have provided in your question is unclear, if you would like to perform the division, without taseeh of the ruling (i.e. branching into the different variations of the main ruling), then according to the Islamic Law of Succession and Inheritance, distribution of an estate will only commence after funeral expenses, debts (including legal costs) and bequests (if any) made to non-heirs – which will not exceed one-third(1/3) of the Estate are made, the Nett Estate will be divided into 8 equal parts. 1 share from these 8 shall be divided equally between his two living wives. The remaining 7 shares should then be divided into 9 equal shares, 2 shares each shall be given to each of the four sons and 1 remaining share shall be given to the daughter. In order to remove the odd division (i.e. division of 7 shares among 5), a variation of the ruling can be to divide the Nett Estate into 144 total shares. 9 shares each shall be given to both of his living wives. Each son shall receive 28 shares whereas the daughter shall receive 14 shares.
2- The brother who has passed away, if he was not married and thus had no wife or children, then first of all from his share, his mother will receive her share in this manner. The amount of his total share will have to be divided into 6 equal shares; one share from this shall be given to the mother and from the remaining 5 shares, 2 shares each will be given to his two brothers and 1 share shall be given to his sister. The brother born from your father’s second wife will not receive a share from your deceased brother’s share.
کما قال اللہ تعالیٰ فی القرآن المجید: يُوصِيكُمُ اللَّهُ فِي أَوْلَادِكُمْ لِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ الْأُنْثَيَيْنِ الی قولہ فَإِنْ كَانَ لَكُمْ وَلَدٌ فَلَهُنَّ الثُّمُنُ مِمَّا تَرَكْتُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ تُوصُونَ بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ(النساء:۱۱و۱۲)
وکما فی السراجی اما لزوجات فحالتان… والثمن مع الولد او ولد الابن وان سفل…اما لبنات الصلب فاحوال ثلاث…. ومع الابن للذکر مثل حظ الانثیین وہو یعصبین۔(السراجی فی المیراث:۱۸ و۱۹)
إذَا اخْتَلَطَ الْبَنُونَ وَالْبَنَاتُ عُصِبَ الْبَنَاتُ فَيَكُونُ لِلِابْنِ مِثْلُ حَظِّهِمَا۔۔۔ قال رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ ( وَيُحْجَبُ بِالِابْنِ ) أَيْ وَلَدُ الِابْنِ يُحْجَبُ بِالِابْنِ ذُكُورُهُمْ وأناثهم فيه سَوَاءٌ لِأَنَّ الِابْنَ أَقْرَبُ وَهُمْ عَصَبَةٌ فَلَا يَرِثُونَ معه بِالْعُصُوبَةِ وَكَذَا بِالْفَرْضِ لِأَنَّ بَنَاتِ الِابْنِ يُدْلِينَ بِهِ فَلَا يَرِثْنَ مع الِابْنِ۔(البحر الرائق :۸/۵۶۳)
والرابع ان تکون الاعداد متبائنۃ لا یوافق بعضہا بعضا فالحکم فیہا ان یضرب احد الاعداد فی جمیع الثانی،ثم مابلغ فی جمیع الثالث،۔۔۔ثم ماجتمع فی اصل المسئلۃ۔(السراجی فی المیراث:باب التصحیح،۶۰)
واللہ اعلم بالصواب