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Business query

Answered according to Hanafi Fiqh by Fatwaa.com

Two questions
1) can I sell what is not in my possession, hereunder is two scenarios
A) i am an agent for a company, if someone orders from their catalogue via me and pays me immediately before I order and pay (normally o pay with my credit card or eft before goods are dispatched and when ppl pick up they pay) is this ok?
B) i sell stuff i see online /, when an order comes i take payment then order goods, when i receive the goods i send it to customer with clear instructions no returns under any circumstances. Ia this allowed?

2) a lady is selling cloaks, no prices marked on each cloak nor are there any indication on price, customer takes out a few and is told these are between 1200 to 1500. Customer then choose one from those ( that was said to be between 1200-1500) now customer is told that one os 1850. Is that allowed?

Shukran

Answer

Wa’alaykum as Salam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu,

1) It is not permissible for a person to sell that which he does not own. Likewise, a person will have to get possession of an item, before he can sell it.

The first scenario will be permissible if you are an official agent for the company. Accordingly, if anyone phones the company and ask about you, they will acknowledge that you are selling on their behalf.

The second scenario is only permissible if you first purchase the commodity with your own funds, and get possession. Once you have the item with you, the customer purchases the item from you. Although not ideal, it is fine to stipulate that there will be no returns.

If this method is not possible, then you can get around it by adopting the Salam module. The following conditions would then need to be fulfilled:

  • You would need to clearly define the quality and quantity of the product.
  • The buyer will have to be apprised that you do not own the item, and you will use his funds to purchase and deliver the product.
  • The time and delivery of the product have to be specified.
  • The item must be in the market for sale (even by others) from the time of the agreement on the transaction, until the time of delivery
  • Full payment has to be made at the time of effecting the sale. An agreement cannot be made that partial payment will be immediate, and the remaining will be upon delivery (or at any later stage)
  • You would need to make some a representative to take possession on your behalf. The seller could be your representative in taking possession by asking him to put the item in your distinguished packaging. Alternatively, you may appoint the shipping company as your representative.

An alternative to all the above is to inform the buyer that you do not own the item, and you could buy it on his (the buyers) behalf for a set fee.

2) Yes, this is allowed. She was just giving an approximate price. The customer is at liberty to negotiate, buy or leave the Abaya.

References

( ومنها) أنه لا يجوز بيع ما ليس عند البائع إلا السلم خاصة لما روي أن رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم – نهى عن بيع ما ليس عند الإنسان ورخص في السلم (بدائع الصنائع – 5 / 235)

وَفِي قَول ابي يُوسُف وَمُحَمّد وابي عبد الله شَرَائِطه سِتَّة اشياء وَهِي مَا قَالَ ابو حنيفَة الا اثْنَيْنِ وهما ان يكون رَأس المَال غير مقوم جَازَ وانه لم يبين الْمَكَان جَازَ

(قوله أو مدة) إلا فيما استثنى: قال في البزازية: إجارة السمسار والمنادي والحمامي والصكاك وما لا يقدر فيه الوقت ولا العمل تجوز لما كان للناس به حاجة ويطيب الأجر المأخوذ لو قدر أجر المثل وذكر أصلا يستخرج منه كثير من المسائل فراجعه في نوع المتفرقات والأجرة على المعاصي. (حاشية ابن عابدين – 6 / 47)

 (وبيع الحاضر) وهو المقيم في المصر والقرى (للبادي) وهو المقيم في البادية؛ لأن فيه إضرارا بأهل البلد، وفي الهداية تبعا لشرح الطحاوي: وصورته أن يكون أهل البلد في قحط وهو يبيع من أهل البدو طمعاً في الثمن الغالي اهـ، وعلى هذا اللام بمعنى “من” أي: من المبادئ؛ وقال الحلواني: صورته أن يجيئ البادي بالطعام إلى المصر؛ فلا يتركه السمسار الحاضر يبيعه بنفسه؛ بل يتوكل عنه ويبيعه ويغلي على الناس؛ ولو تركه لرخص على الناس؛ وعلى هذا قال في المجتبى: هذا التفسير أصح؛ كذا في الفيض (اللباب في شرح الكتاب – 2 / 30)

الجواب-جائز ہے…یہ صورت اجرت دلال میں ہوتی ہےاور اسکو فقہاء نے بضرورت جائز کیا ہے (امداد الاحکام  -3 / 547-546)

دلالي (كميشن ايجٹ) میں فےصد کے حساب سے اجرت طے کرنا۔ ۔ ۔اس میں بھی مفتی بہ قول یہ ہے کہ ایسا کرنا جائز ہے )اسلام اور جدید معاشی مسائل – 2 / 201 (

الجواب-اجرت دلال میں فقہاء حنفیہ کی عبارات مختلف ہےمگر حاجت الناس کو مدنظررکھتے ہوے قول جواز مختار و مفتی بہ ہے ،تعیین اجرت ضروری ہے (احسن الفتاوی – 7 / 273)

This answer was collected from Fatwaa.com which is an excellent Q&A site managed by Mufti Ismail Moosa from South Africa. .

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